SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
☒ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2020
☐ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ______ to ______
Commission File Number 001-35095
UNITED COMMUNITY BANKS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
|(State of incorporation)|| ||(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)|
|125 Highway 515 East|| |
|(Address of principal executive offices)||(Zip code)|
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (706) 781-2265
|Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:|
|Title of Each Class||Trading Symbol(s)||Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered|
|Common stock, par value $1 per share||UCBI||Nasdaq Global Select Market|
|Depositary shares, each representing 1/1000th interest in a share of Series I Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock||UCBIO||Nasdaq Global Select Market|
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
|Large accelerated filer||☒||Accelerated filer||☐|
|Non-accelerated filer||☐||Smaller reporting company||☐|
|Emerging growth company||☐|
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C.7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No ☒
State the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter: $1,567,580,828 (based on shares held by non-affiliates at $20.12 per share, the closing stock price on the Nasdaq stock market on June 30, 2020).
As of January 31, 2021, there were 86,736,280 shares of United Community Banks, Inc.’s common stock issued and outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on May 12, 2021 (the “2021 Proxy Statement”) are incorporated herein into Part III by reference.
Glossary of Defined Terms
The following terms may be used throughout this report, including the consolidated financial statements and related notes.
|ACL||Allowance for credit losses|
|ALCO||Asset/Liability Management Committee|
|AOCI||Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)|
|ASC||Accounting Standards Codification|
|ASC 326||ASC Topic 326, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses|
|ASU||Accounting standards update|
|BHC Act||Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended|
|Bank||United Community Bank|
|Board||United Community Banks Inc., Board of Directors|
|BOLI||Bank owned life insurance|
|BSA||Bank Secrecy Act|
|CARES Act||Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act|
|CECL||Current expected credit loss model|
|CET1||Common equity tier 1|
|CFPB||Consumer Financial Protection Bureau|
|CME||Chicago Mercantile Exchange|
|Company||United Community Banks Incorporated (interchangeable with "United" below)|
|CRA||Community Reinvestment Act|
|GADBF||Georgia Department of Banking and Finance|
|Dodd-Frank Act||Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act|
|DRIP||Dividend Reinvestment and Stock Purchase Plan|
|DTA||Deferred tax asset|
|DTL||Deferred tax liability|
|Fannie Mae||Federal National Mortgage Association|
|FASB||Financial Accounting Standards Board|
|FCA||United Kingdom's Financial Conduct Authority|
|FDIC||Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation|
|Federal Reserve||Federal Reserve System|
|FHLB||Federal Home Loan Bank|
|FinCEN||Financial Crimes Enforcement Network|
|FMBT||First Madison Bank & Trust|
|Foundation||United Community Bank Foundation|
|Freddie Mac||Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation|
|FTE||Fully taxable equivalent|
|Funded Plan||Funded noncontributory defined benefit pension plan acquired with Palmetto|
|GAAP||Accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America|
|GLB Act||Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act|
|GSE||U.S. government-sponsored enterprise|
|Holding Company||United Community Banks, Inc. on an unconsolidated basis|
|Incurred Loss||Incurred loss impairment framework used to calculate the allowance for loan loss for periods prior to January 1, 2020|
|LIBOR||London Interbank Offered Rate|
|LIHTC||Low income housing tax credits|
|MD&A||Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations|
|Modified Retirement Plan||United's unfunded noncontributory defined benefit pension plan|
|Nasdaq||National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations Stock Market's Global Select Market|
|Navitas||Navitas Credit Corp.|
|Non-PCI||Loans purchased without evidence of deteriorated credit quality since origination, referred to as purchased non-credit impaired|
|NOW||Negotiable order of withdrawal|
|OFAC||U.S. Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control|
|Palmetto||Palmetto Bancshares, Inc.|
|Patriot Act||Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001|
|PCD||Purchased credit deteriorated loans|
|PCI||Purchased credit impaired loans|
|PPP||Paycheck Protection Program|
|PSU||Performance based restricted stock unit awards with market conditions|
|Report||Annual Report on Form 10-K|
|SBA||United States Small Business Administration|
|Seaside||Seaside National Bank & Trust|
|SEC||Securities and Exchange Commission|
|SOFR||Secured Overnight Financing Rate|
|TDR||Troubled debt restructuring|
|the Bank||United Community Bank|
|Three Shores||Three Shores Bancorporation, Inc.|
|U.S. Treasury||United States Department of the Treasury|
|UCBI||United Community Banks, Inc. and its direct and indirect subsidiaries|
|UCMS||United Community Mortgage Services|
|UCPS||United Community Payment Systems, LLC|
|United||United Community Banks, Inc. and its direct and indirect subsidiaries|
|USDA||United States Department of Agriculture|
Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This Report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. In particular, information appearing under “Business,” “Risk Factors,” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” includes forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are neither statements of historical fact nor assurance of future performance and generally can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “believes”, “expects”, “may”, “will”, “could”, “should”, “projects”, “plans”, “goal”, “targets”, “potential”, “estimates”, “pro forma”, “seeks”, “intends”, or “anticipates”, or similar expressions. Forward-looking statements include discussions of strategy, financial projections, guidance and estimates (including their underlying assumptions), statements regarding plans, objectives, expectations or consequences of various transactions or events, and statements about our future performance, operations, products and services, and should be viewed with caution.
Because forward-looking statements relate to the future, they are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties, assumptions and changes in circumstances, many of which are out of our control, and that are difficult to predict as to timing, extent, likelihood and degree of occurrence, and that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results implied or anticipated by the statements. Except as required by law, we expressly disclaim any obligations to publicly update any forward-looking statements whether written or oral, that may be made from time to time, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise. Important factors that could cause our actual results and financial condition to differ materially from those indicated in the forward-looking statements, in addition to those described in detail under Items 1A of this Report - “Risk Factors” - include, but are not limited to the following:
•negative economic and political conditions that adversely affect the general economy, housing prices, the real estate market, the job market, consumer confidence, the financial condition of our borrowers and consumer spending habits, which may affect, among other things, the levels of non-performing assets, charge-offs and provision expense;
•changes in loan underwriting, credit review or loss policies associated with economic conditions, examination conclusions or regulatory developments, either as they currently exist or as they may be affected by conditions associated with the COVID-19 pandemic;
•the COVID-19 pandemic and its continuing effects on the economic and business environments in which we operate;
•strategic, market, operational, liquidity and interest rate risks associated with our business;
•continuation of historically low interest rates coupled with other potential fluctuations or unanticipated changes in the interest rate environment, including interest rate changes made by the Federal Reserve, the discontinuation of LIBOR as an interest rate benchmark, as well as cash flow reassessments may reduce net interest margin and/or the volumes and values of loans made or held as well as the value of other financial assets;
•our lack of geographic diversification and any unanticipated or greater than anticipated adverse conditions in the national or local economies in which we operate;
•our loan concentration in industries or sectors that may experience unanticipated or greater than anticipated adverse conditions than other industries or sectors in the national or local economies in which we operate;
•the risks of expansion into new geographic or product markets;
•risks with respect to future mergers or acquisitions, including our ability to successfully expand and complete acquisitions and integrate businesses and operations that we acquire;
•our ability to attract and retain key employees;
•competition from financial institutions and other financial service providers including non-bank financial technology providers and our ability to attract customers from other financial institutions;
•losses due to fraudulent and negligent conduct of our customers, third party service providers or employees;
•cybersecurity risks and the vulnerability of our network and online banking portals, and the systems or parties with whom we contract, to unauthorized access, computer viruses, phishing schemes, spam attacks, human error, natural disasters, power loss and other security breaches that could adversely affect our business and financial performance or reputation;
•our reliance on third parties to provide key components of our business infrastructure and services required to operate our business;
•the risk that we may be required to make substantial expenditures to keep pace with regulatory initiatives and the rapid technological changes in the financial services market;
•the availability of and access to capital;
•legislative, regulatory or accounting changes that may adversely affect us;
•volatility in the ACL resulting from the CECL methodology, either alone or as that may be affected by conditions arising out of the COVID-19 pandemic;
•adverse results (including judgments, costs, fines, reputational harm, inability to obtain necessary approvals and/or other negative effects) from current or future litigation, regulatory proceedings, examinations, investigations, or similar matters, or developments related thereto;
•any matter that would cause us to conclude that there was impairment of any asset, including intangible assets, such as goodwill;
•limitations on our ability to declare and pay dividends and other distributions from the Bank to the Holding Company, which could affect Holding Company liquidity, including its ability to pay dividends to shareholders or take other capital actions; and
•other risks and uncertainties disclosed in documents filed or furnished by us with or to the SEC, any of which could cause actual results to differ materially from future results expressed, implied or otherwise anticipated by such forward-looking statements.
Unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “we,” “our,” or “us” refer to United Community Banks, Inc. and its direct and indirect subsidiaries, including United Community Bank.
ITEM 1. BUSINESS.
We are a bank holding company with approximately $17.8 billion in assets as of December 31, 2020. We were incorporated in 1987 and began operations in 1988 in the state of Georgia by acquiring the capital stock of the Bank, a Georgia state-chartered bank that opened in 1950. We have since grown through a combination of acquisitions and strategic growth throughout the Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Florida markets, as well as nationally through our SBA/USDA lending and equipment finance businesses.
Recent Developments during 2020
During 2020, global financial markets experienced significant volatility resulting from the spread of a novel coronavirus known as COVID-19. In March of 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic and the United States declared a National Public Health Emergency. The COVID-19 pandemic has materially restricted and continues to materially restrict the level of economic activity in our markets. In response to the pandemic, state governments both inside and outside of our markets took and continue to take preventative or protective actions, such as imposing restrictions on travel and business operations, advising or requiring individuals to limit or forgo time outside of their homes, and ordering temporary closures of businesses that have been deemed to be non-essential. These measures have dramatically increased unemployment in the United States and have negatively impacted many businesses, and thereby threatened the repayment ability of some of our borrowers.
To address the economic impact in the United States, the CARES Act was enacted in March 2020. The CARES Act included a number of provisions that affected us, including accounting relief for TDRs and regulatory capital relief for the effect of CECL implementation. The CARES Act also established the PPP through the SBA, which allowed us to lend money to small businesses, with guarantees from the SBA, to maintain employee payrolls and pay other qualified expenses during the crisis. Under this program, loan amounts may be forgiven if the proceeds were used for payroll and other permitted expenses in accordance with the requirements of the PPP, and the borrower meets certain other requirements.
The Federal Reserve also took additional steps to bolster the economy by, among other things, reducing the federal funds rate and the discount-window borrowing rate to near zero.
In response to the pandemic, we implemented protocols and processes to help protect our employees, customers and communities. These measures included:
•Temporarily operating our branches under a drive-through model with appointment-only lobby service, facilitating work from home, when possible, for employees, and leveraging our business continuity plans that include critical operations teams being divided and dispersed to separate locations;
•Offering assistance to our customers affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, including payment deferrals, waiving certain fees, suspending property foreclosures, and participating in the CARES Act and lending programs for businesses, including the SBA PPP;
•Temporarily suspending common stock repurchases to maximize capital and liquidity resources; and
•Issuing $100 million of non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock and $100 million of senior debentures to ensure our capital ratios and liquidity remain strong throughout the rapidly changing economic conditions.
In connection with reviewing our financial condition in light of the pandemic, we evaluated certain assets, including goodwill and other intangibles, for potential impairment. Based upon our most recent review as of December 31, 2020, we determined that no impairments have occurred. We also elected to delay for two years the phase-in of the capital impact from our adoption of ASC 326, the new accounting standard on credit losses. For more information, see Capital Adequacy.
As indicated, we implemented various consumer and commercial loan modification programs to provide our borrowers relief from the economic impacts of COVID-19. Based on guidance in the CARES Act, COVID-19 related modifications to loans that were current as
of December 31, 2019 are exempt from TDR classification under GAAP. In addition, the bank regulatory agencies issued interagency guidance stating that COVID-19 related short-term modifications (i.e., payment deferrals) granted to loans that were current as of the loan modification program implementation date are not new TDRs. For more information, see Table 16 - COVID-19 Deferrals in Part II, Item 7. MD&A of this Report.
Acquisition of Three Shores Bancorporation, Inc.
On July 1, 2020, we acquired Three Shores, including its wholly-owned subsidiary, Seaside, headquartered in Orlando, Florida. Seaside operated a 14-branch network located in key Florida metropolitan markets. In this acquisition, United acquired $2.13 billion of assets and assumed $1.99 billion of liabilities. In the merger, Three Shores shareholders received $188 million in total consideration, consisting of $164 million (8.13 million shares) in United common stock and $24.1 million in cash.
We provide a wide array of commercial and consumer banking services, including checking, savings and time deposit accounts, secured and unsecured loans, mortgage loans, payment services, wire transfers, wealth management, trust services, private banking, investment advisory services, insurance, and other related financial services to our customers. Our business model combines the commitment to exceptional customer service of a local bank with the products and expertise of a larger institution. We believe that we have a strong culture focused on the golden rule of banking – treating each other and the customer the way we would want to be treated. We exist to serve our customers, and we are committed to making lives better through outstanding products, dedication to our customers, and serving the communities in which we operate.
We operate as a locally-focused community bank, supplemented by experienced, centralized support to deliver products and services to our larger, more sophisticated, customers. Our organizational structure reflects these strengths, with local leaders for each market and market advisory boards operating in partnership with the product experts of our Commercial Banking Solutions unit. We believe that this combination of service and expertise sets us apart and is instrumental in our strategy to build long-term relationships.
Our revenue is primarily derived from interest on and fees received in connection with the loans we make and from interest and dividends from our investment securities and short-term investments. The principal sources of funds for our lending activities are customer deposits, repayment of loans, and the sale and maturity of investment securities. Our principal expenses are interest paid on deposits and other borrowings and operating and general administrative expenses.
We offer a full range of lending services, including real estate, consumer and commercial loans, to individuals, small businesses, mid-sized commercial businesses and non-profit organizations. We also originate loans partially guaranteed by the SBA and to a lesser extent by the USDA loan programs. Our consolidated loans at December 31, 2020 were $11.4 billion, or 64% of total consolidated assets. The interest rates that we charge on loans vary with the degree of risk, maturity and amount of the loan, and are further subject to competitive pressures, deposit costs, availability of funds and government regulations.
The most significant categories of our loans are those to finance owner occupied real estate, commercial income property, commercial and industrial equipment and operating loans, and consumer loans secured by personal residences. A majority of our loans are made on a secured basis.
The majority of our loans are to customers located in the immediate market areas of our banking locations in Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Florida, including customers who have a seasonal residence in our market areas. We originate a significant portion of our SBA/USDA and equipment finance loans on a national basis, to customers outside of our immediate market areas.
Our full-service retail mortgage lending division, UCMS, is approved as a seller/servicer for the Fannie Mae and the Freddie Mac and provides fixed and adjustable-rate home mortgages. During 2020, the Bank originated $2.12 billion in residential mortgage loans for the purchase of homes and to refinance existing mortgage debt. The majority of these mortgages were sold into the secondary market without recourse to us, other than for breaches of warranties. We have retained the servicing on most of our mortgage loans sold.
Our credit organization provides each lending officer with written guidelines for lending activities, and limited lending authority is delegated to lending officers. Loans in excess of individual officer credit authority must be approved by a senior officer with sufficient approval authority delegated by our credit organization or by our Senior Credit Committee.
Our Regional Credit Officers, Senior Credit Officers, and Senior Risk Officers provide credit approval and portfolio administration support for our commercial lending operations as needed. Our Regional Credit Officers have lending authority set by our Chief Commercial Credit Officer based on characteristics of the markets they serve. For commercial loan relationships less than $500,000, we use a centralized small business lending/underwriting department.
We have a centralized consumer credit center that provides underwriting, regulatory disclosure and document preparation for all consumer loan requests originated by our lenders. Applications are processed through an automated loan origination software platform and approved by credit center underwriters.
Our Loan Review Department reviews, or engages an independent third party to review, our loan portfolio on an ongoing basis to identify any weaknesses in the portfolio and to assess the general quality of credit underwriting. The results of such reviews are presented to our executive management and our Board.
For additional information regarding our lending activity, see the section captioned “Loans” in the “Balance Sheet Review” section of Part II, Item 7. MD&A of this Report.
Deposits are the major source of our funds for lending and other investment activities. We offer our customers a variety of deposit products, including checking accounts, savings accounts, money market accounts and other deposit accounts, through multiple channels, including our network of full-service branches and our online, mobile and telephone banking platforms. We consider the majority of our regular savings, demand, NOW and money market deposit accounts to be core deposits. Generally, we attempt to maintain the rates paid on our deposits at a competitive level. We generate the majority of our deposits from customers in our local markets. For additional information regarding our deposit accounts, see the section captioned “Deposits” in Part II, Item 7. MD&A of this Report.
We use our investment portfolio to provide for the investment of excess funds at acceptable risk levels while providing liquidity to fund loan demand or to offset fluctuations in deposits. Our portfolio consists primarily of residential and commercial mortgage-backed securities, asset-backed securities, U.S. Treasury, U.S. agency and municipal obligations. Most of the securities are classified by us as available-for-sale and recorded on our balance sheet at fair value at each balance sheet date. Changes in fair value on available-for-sale securities are generally recorded directly in our shareholders’ equity account and are not recognized in our income statement.
Wealth Management, Trust, and Insurance
Through our Seaside Wealth Management division, we provide financial planning services, customized portfolio management and investment advice utilizing an open architecture approach to the selection of asset managers. We also offer trust services to manage fiduciary assets. Seaside Capital Management, Inc., a registered investment advisor that is a subsidiary of the Bank, offers investment advisory services for clients who wish to utilize an independent custodian. Seaside Insurance, Inc., a subsidiary of the Bank, operates as an independent insurance agency for our clients.
Through our United Community Advisory Services division, we generate fee revenue through the sale of non-deposit investment products and insurance products, including life insurance, long-term care insurance and tax-deferred annuities, to our customers. We have an affiliation with a third party broker/dealer, LPL Financial, to facilitate this line of business.
Reinsurance and Merchant Services
We own a captive insurance subsidiary, NLFC Reinsurance Corp., which provides reinsurance on a property insurance contract covering equipment financed by our equipment financing division.
We provide payment processing services for our commercial and small business customers through UCPS. UCPS is a joint venture between the Bank and BluePay Processing, LLC, a merchant services provider and subsidiary of Fiserv, Inc.
We compete in the highly competitive banking and financial services industry. Our profitability depends principally on our ability to effectively compete in the markets in which we conduct business.
We experience strong competition from both bank and non-bank competitors. Broadly speaking, we compete with national banks, super-regional banks, smaller community banks, credit unions, non-traditional internet-based banks and insurance companies. We also
compete with other financial intermediaries and investment alternatives such as mortgage companies, credit card issuers, leasing companies, finance companies, money market mutual funds, brokerage firms, governmental and corporate bond issuers, and other securities firms. Many of these non-bank competitors are not subject to the same regulatory oversight, which can provide them a competitive advantage in some instances. In many cases, our competitors have substantially greater resources and offer certain services that we are unable to provide to our customers.
We encounter strong pricing competition in providing our services, particularly in making loans and attracting deposits. The larger national and super-regional banks may have significantly greater lending limits and may offer additional products. We attempt to compete successfully with our competitors, regardless of their size, by emphasizing customer service while continuing to provide a wide variety of services.
We expect competition in the industry to continue to increase mainly as a result of the improvement in financial technology used by both existing and new banking and financial services firms. Competition may further intensify as additional companies (both banks and non-banks) enter the markets where we conduct business, competitors combine to present more formidable challengers, and we enter mature markets in accordance with our expansion strategy.
Acquisitions and Expansion
We look for opportunities to expand into attractive markets in which we believe our operating model will be successful. We have entered new markets and expanded our product offerings both by establishing new branches and service locations and also by selective acquisitions of existing market participants. We have developed a number of commercial lending businesses organically, which provide local commercial real estate, middle market, senior living, renewable energy, builder finance and asset-based lending services. We generally seek acquisition partners that share a similar culture and commitment to customer service. Acquisitions typically involve the payment of a premium over book and market values and, therefore, some dilution to our book value may occur with any future transactions. Our goal is to maintain a reasonable earn-back period of any tangible book value dilution, using realistic growth and expense reduction assumptions, as well as to achieve an attractive return on investment. Our ability to engage in any potential acquisition will depend upon the review and approval from various bank regulatory authorities.
Supervision and Regulation
Like all banks and bank holding companies, we are regulated extensively under state and federal banking laws. The regulatory framework is intended primarily for the protection of the depositors, the federal deposit insurance fund and the banking system as a whole and not for the protection of our shareholders and creditors. Certain provisions of laws and regulations affecting financial services firms are subject to further rulemaking, guidance and interpretation by the applicable federal regulators. The Holding Company is subject to the examination and reporting requirements of the Federal Reserve and the GADBF and also is subject to regulation by the SEC by virtue of its status as a public company and due to the nature of some of its businesses. The Bank is subject to examination and reporting requirements of the FDIC, the GADBF and the CFPB. The financial statements and information contained herein have not been reviewed, or confirmed for accuracy or relevance, by the FDIC or any other regulator.
The following is a general summary of the material aspects of certain statutes and regulations applicable to us. These summary descriptions are not complete, and you should refer to the full text of the statutes, regulations, and corresponding guidance for more information. These statutes and regulations are subject to change, and additional statutes, regulations, and corresponding guidance may be adopted. We are unable to predict these future changes or the effects, if any, that these changes could have on our business, revenues, and results of operations.
Bank Holding Company Regulation
The Holding Company is a registered bank holding company subject to regulation by the Federal Reserve under the BHC Act and is required to file annual and quarterly financial information with, and is subject to periodic examination by, the Federal Reserve. The BHC Act requires every bank holding company to obtain the Federal Reserve’s prior approval before (1) acquiring direct or indirect ownership or control of more than 5% of the voting shares of any bank that it does not already control; (2) acquiring all or substantially all of the assets of a bank; and (3) subject to certain exceptions, merging or consolidating with any other bank holding company. In addition, a bank holding company is generally prohibited from engaging in, or acquiring a direct or indirect interest in or control of more than 5% of the voting shares of any company engaged in, non-banking activities. This prohibition does not apply to activities listed in the BHC Act or found by the Federal Reserve, by order or regulation, to be closely related to banking or managing or controlling banks as to be a proper incident thereto.
Some of the activities that the Federal Reserve has determined by regulation or order to be closely related to banking are:
•making or servicing loans and certain types of leases;
•performing certain data processing services;
•acting as fiduciary or investment or financial advisor;
•providing brokerage services;
•underwriting bank eligible securities;
•underwriting debt and equity securities on a limited basis through separately capitalized subsidiaries; and
•making investments in corporations or projects designed primarily to promote community welfare.
Although the activities of bank holding companies have traditionally been limited to the business of banking and activities closely related or incidental to banking (as discussed above), the GLB Act relaxed the previous limitations and permitted bank holding companies to engage in a broader range of financial activities. Specifically, bank holding companies may elect to become financial holding companies, which allows them to affiliate with securities firms and insurance companies and engage in other activities that are financial in nature. We have not sought financial holding company status, but we may elect that status in the future. If we were to become a financial holding company, we would be required to be well capitalized and well managed, and each insured depository institution we control would also have to be well capitalized, well managed and have at least a satisfactory rating under the CRA (discussed below).
The Holding Company also must register with the GADBF and file periodic information with the GADBF. As part of such registration, the GADBF requires information with respect to our financial condition, operations, management and intercompany relationship and related matters. The GADBF may also require such other information as is necessary to keep itself informed concerning compliance with Georgia law and the regulations and orders issued thereunder by the GADBF, and the GADBF may examine both the Holding Company and the Bank. Although the Bank operates branches in North Carolina, Tennessee, South Carolina and Florida, none of the North Carolina Banking Commission, the Tennessee Department of Financial Institutions, the South Carolina Commissioner of Banking, or the Florida Office of Financial Regulation examines or directly regulates out-of-state holding companies.
The Holding Company is an “affiliate” of the Bank under the Federal Reserve Act, which imposes certain restrictions on (1) loans by the Bank to the Holding Company, (2) investments in the stock or securities of the Holding Company by the Bank, (3) the Bank taking the stock or securities of an “affiliate” as collateral for loans by the Bank to a borrower and (4) the purchase of assets from the Holding Company by the Bank. Further, a bank holding company and its subsidiaries are prohibited from engaging in certain tie-in arrangements in connection with any extension of credit, lease or sale of property or furnishing of services.
Payment of Dividends
The Holding Company is a legal entity separate and distinct from the Bank. Most of the revenue of the Holding Company results from dividends paid to it by the Bank. There are statutory and regulatory requirements applicable to the payment of dividends and other distributions by the Bank, as well as by the Holding Company to its shareholders.
Under the regulations of the GADBF, a Georgia state bank may declare a dividend out of its retained earnings without GADBF approval if it meets all the following requirements:
(a)total classified assets as of the most recent examination of the bank do not exceed 80% of equity capital (as defined by regulation);
(b)the aggregate amount of dividends declared or anticipated to be declared in the calendar year does not exceed 50% of the net profits after taxes but before dividends for the previous calendar year; and
(c)the ratio of equity capital to adjusted assets is not less than 6%.
The payment of dividends by the Holding Company and the Bank may also be affected or limited by other factors, such as the requirement to maintain adequate capital above regulatory guidelines. In addition, if, in the opinion of the applicable regulatory authority, a bank under its jurisdiction is engaged in or is about to engage in an unsafe or unsound practice (which, depending upon the financial condition of the bank, could include the payment of dividends), such authority may require, after notice and hearing, that such bank cease and desist from such practice. The FDIC has issued a policy statement providing that insured banks should generally only pay dividends out of current operating earnings. In addition to the formal statutes and regulations, regulatory authorities consider the adequacy of the Bank’s total capital in relation to its assets, deposits and other such items. Capital adequacy considerations could further limit the availability of dividends from the Bank.
The Federal Reserve has issued a policy statement on the payment of cash dividends by bank holding companies, which expresses the Federal Reserve’s view that a bank holding company generally should pay cash dividends only to the extent that the holding company’s net income for the past year is sufficient to cover both the cash dividends and a rate of earnings retention that is consistent with the holding company’s capital needs, asset quality, and overall financial condition. The Federal Reserve has also indicated that a bank holding company should not maintain a level of cash dividends that places undue pressure on the capital of its bank subsidiaries, or that can be funded only through additional borrowings or other arrangements that undermine the bank holding company’s ability to act as a source of strength to its bank subsidiaries. The Holding Company and the Bank must also maintain the CET1 capital conservation buffer of 2.5% to avoid becoming subject to restrictions on capital distributions, including dividends, as described below under “Capital Adequacy-Basel III Capital Standards.”
During 2020 and 2018, the Bank paid cash dividends of $150 million and $162 million, respectively, to the Holding Company. In 2019, no cash dividends were paid by the Bank to the Holding Company. The Holding Company declared annual cash dividends on its common stock in 2020, 2019 and 2018 of $0.72, $0.68 and $0.58 per share, respectively.
Banks and bank holding companies are subject to various regulatory capital requirements administered by state and federal banking agencies. Capital adequacy guidelines involve quantitative measures of assets, liabilities and certain off-balance-sheet items calculated under regulatory accounting practices. Capital amounts and classifications are also subject to qualitative judgments by regulators about components, risk weighting and other factors.
Basel III Capital Standards
Regulatory capital rules adopted in July 2013 and fully-phased in as of January 1, 2019, which we refer to as the Basel III rules, impose minimum capital requirements for bank holding companies and banks. The Basel III rules apply to all national and state banks and savings associations regardless of size and bank holding companies and savings and loan holding companies with more than $3 billion in total consolidated assets.
Specifically, we are required to maintain the following minimum capital levels:
•a CET1 risk-based capital ratio of 4.5%;
•a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6%;
•a total risk-based capital ratio of 8%; and
•a leverage ratio of 4%.
Under Basel III, Tier 1 capital includes two components: CET1 capital and additional Tier 1 capital. The highest form of capital, CET1 capital, consists solely of common stock (plus related surplus), retained earnings, AOCI, and limited amounts of minority interests that are in the form of common stock. Additional Tier 1 capital is primarily comprised of noncumulative perpetual preferred stock, Tier 1 minority interests and grandfathered trust preferred securities (as discussed below). Tier 2 capital generally includes the ACL up to 1.25% of RWA, qualifying preferred stock, subordinated debt and qualifying tier 2 minority interests, less any deductions in Tier 2 instruments of an unconsolidated financial institution. Cumulative perpetual preferred stock is included only in Tier 2 capital, except that the Basel III rules permit bank holding companies with less than $15 billion in total consolidated assets to continue to include trust preferred securities and cumulative perpetual preferred stock issued before May 19, 2010 in Tier 1 Capital (but not in CET1 capital), subject to certain restrictions. AOCI is presumptively included in CET1 capital and often would operate to reduce this category of capital. When implemented, Basel III provided a one-time opportunity at the end of the first quarter of 2015 for covered banking organizations to opt out of much of this treatment of AOCI. We made this opt-out election and, as a result, retained our pre-existing treatment for AOCI.
In addition, in order to avoid restrictions on capital distributions or discretionary bonus payments to executives, under Basel III, a banking organization must maintain a “capital conservation buffer” on top of its minimum risk-based capital requirements. This buffer must consist solely of Tier 1 Common Equity, but the buffer applies to all three risk-based measurements (CET1, Tier 1 capital and total capital). The 2.5% capital conservation buffer was phased in incrementally over time, and became fully effective for us on January 1, 2019, resulting in the following effective minimum capital plus capital conservation buffer ratios: (i) a CET1 capital ratio of 7.0%, (ii) a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 8.5%, and (iii) a total risk-based capital ratio of 10.5%.
On December 21, 2018, the federal banking agencies issued a joint final rule to revise their regulatory capital rules to (i) address the upcoming implementation of a new credit impairment model, or CECL, as part of an accounting standard under GAAP; (ii) provide an optional three-year phase-in period for the day-one adverse regulatory capital effects that banking organizations are expected to
experience upon implementing CECL; and (iii) require the use of CECL in stress tests beginning with the 2020 capital planning and stress testing cycle for certain banking organizations that are subject to stress testing. We adopted the CECL accounting standard on January 1, 2020 using the modified retrospective method for loans, leases, and off-balance sheet credit exposures. Adoption of this standard resulted in an $8.75 million increase in the ACL and a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings of $3.53 million, net of tax, during the first quarter of 2020. For more information, see Note 2, Accounting Standards Updates and Recently Adopted Standards, in Part II, Item 8 of this Report - “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.”
In December 2017, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision published the last version of the Basel III accord, generally referred to as “Basel IV.” The Basel Committee stated that a key objective of the revisions incorporated into the framework is to reduce excessive variability of RWA, which will be accomplished by enhancing the robustness and risk sensitivity of the standardized approaches for credit risk and operational risk, which will facilitate the comparability of banks’ capital ratios; constraining the use of internally modeled approaches; and complementing the risk-weighted capital ratio with a finalized leverage ratio and a revised and robust capital floor. Leadership of the federal banking agencies who are tasked with implementing Basel IV supported the revisions. Although it is uncertain at this time, we anticipate some, if not all, of the Basel IV accord may be incorporated into the capital requirements framework applicable to us.
Prompt Corrective Action
In addition to the Basel III rules applicable to both banks and bank holding companies discussed above, the Bank is required to comply with the capital requirements promulgated under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act and the prompt corrective action regulations thereunder, which set forth five capital categories, each with specific regulatory consequences. The federal banking agencies have specified by regulation the relevant capital level for each category.
The following table outlines the five capital categories under these regulations.
|Category||Total Capital||Tier 1|
|Tangible Equity to Total Assets|
|Well-capitalized||at least 10%||at least 8%||at least 6.5%||at least 5%|
|Adequately capitalized||at least 8%||at least 6%||at least 4.5%||at least 4%|
|Undercapitalized||under 8%||under 6%||under 4.5%||under 4%|
|Significantly undercapitalized||under 6%||under 4%||under 3%||under 3%|
|Critically undercapitalized||2% or less|
As of December 31, 2020, the FDIC categorized the Bank as “well-capitalized” under current regulations.
Federal banking regulators are required to take various mandatory supervisory actions and are authorized to take other discretionary actions with respect to institutions in the three undercapitalized categories. The severity of the action depends upon the capital category in which the institution is placed. Institutions in any of the three undercapitalized categories are prohibited from declaring dividends or making capital distributions. In addition, an institution that is categorized in the three undercapitalized categories is required to submit an acceptable capital restoration plan to its appropriate federal banking agency, which, for the Bank, is the FDIC. Generally, subject to a narrow exception, banking regulators must appoint a receiver or conservator for an institution that is “critically undercapitalized.” The FDIC regulations also allow it to “downgrade” an institution to a lower capital category based on supervisory factors other than capital.
Consumer Protection Laws
In connection with its lending activities, the Bank is subject to a number of federal and state laws designed to protect borrowers and promote lending to various sectors of the economy and population. These laws include the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Truth in Lending Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedure Act and their respective state law counterparts.
The Dodd-Frank Act created the CFPB, which is granted broad rulemaking, supervisory and enforcement powers under various federal consumer financial protection laws, including the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, Truth in Lending Act, Real Estate Settlement
Procedures Act, Fair Credit Reporting Act, Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Consumer Financial Privacy provisions of the GLB Act and certain other statutes. The CFPB has examination and primary enforcement authority with respect to depository institutions with $10 billion or more in assets, including the Bank. The CFPB has authority to prevent unfair, deceptive or abusive practices in connection with the offering of consumer financial products.
The CFPB has issued a number of regulations related to the origination of mortgages, foreclosures, and overdrafts as well as many other consumer issues. Additionally, the CFPB has proposed, or may propose, additional regulations or modifications to existing regulations that directly relate to our business. New CFPB regulations, and changes to CFPB regulations and enforcement priorities, may have a material impact on our compliance costs, compliance risk, and operations of the Bank.
FDIC Insurance Assessments
The Bank’s deposits are insured by the FDIC up to $250,000 per account subject to applicable limitations through the Deposit Insurance Fund. As a result, the Bank must pay deposit insurance assessments to the FDIC. The FDIC imposes a risk-based deposit premium assessment system to determine assessments based on a number of factors to measure the risk each institution poses to the Deposit Insurance Fund. The assessment rate is applied to our total average assets less tangible equity. Under the current system, premiums are assessed quarterly and could increase if, for example, criticized loans and/or other higher risk assets increase or balance sheet liquidity decreases. Because the Bank exceeds $10 billion in assets, the FDIC uses a “scorecard” system to calculate our assessments that combines regulatory ratings and certain forward‑looking financial measures intended to assess the risk an institution poses to the Deposit Insurance Fund. The FDIC also has the ability to make discretionary adjustments to the total score based upon significant risk factors that are not adequately captured in the calculations.
In addition to ordinary assessments described above, the FDIC has the ability to impose special assessments in certain instances. For example, under the Dodd-Frank Act, the minimum designated reserve ratio for the Deposit Insurance Fund was increased to 1.35% of the estimated total amount of insured deposits, and the FDIC adopted rules to impose a surcharge on the quarterly deposit insurance assessments of insured depository institutions deemed to be “large institutions,” generally defined to include banks with total consolidated assets of $10 billion or more for four consecutive quarters, to reach the designated reserve ratio. On September 30, 2018, the Deposit Insurance Fund reached 1.36%, exceeding the statutorily required minimum reserve ratio of 1.35%. On reaching the minimum reserve ratio of 1.35%, FDIC regulations provided for two changes to deposit insurance assessments: (i) surcharges on insured depository institutions with total consolidated assets of $10 billion or more (large institutions) ceased; and (ii) small banks were granted assessment credits for the portion of their assessments that contributed to the growth in the reserve ratio from between 1.15% and 1.35%, to be applied when the reserve ratio was at or above 1.38%. Assessment rates are expected to decrease if the reserve ratio increases such that it exceeds 2%.
The FDIC may also terminate deposit insurance upon a finding that the institution has engaged in unsafe and unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations, or has violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order or condition imposed by the FDIC.
The Dodd-Frank Act included provisions which restrict interchange fees, which are fees charged by banks to cover the cost of handling and exposure to credit and fraud-related risks inherent in bank credit or debit card transactions, to those which are “reasonable and proportionate” for certain debit card issuers and limits the ability of networks and issuers to restrict debit card transaction routing. This statutory provision is known as the Durbin Amendment. In the Federal Reserve’s final rules implementing the Durbin Amendment, interchange fees for debit card transactions were capped at $0.21 plus five basis points in order to be eligible for a safe harbor such that the fee is conclusively determined to be reasonable and proportionate. Another related rule also permits an additional $0.01 per transaction “fraud prevention adjustment” to the interchange fee if certain Federal Reserve standards are implemented, including an annual review of fraud prevention policies and procedures. With respect to network exclusivity and merchant routing restrictions, it is now required that all debit cards participate in at least two unaffiliated networks so that the transactions initiated using those debit cards will have at least two independent routing channels. The interchange fee restrictions contained in the Durbin Amendment, and the rules promulgated thereunder, apply to debit card issuers with $10 billion or more in total consolidated assets. We became subject to the interchange fee restrictions and other requirements contained in the Durbin Amendment on July 1, 2017.
In addition to the potential restrictions on discretionary bonus compensation under the Basel III rules, the federal bank regulatory agencies have issued guidance on incentive compensation policies (the “Incentive Compensation Guidance”) intended to ensure that the incentive compensation policies of financial institutions do not undermine the safety and soundness of such institutions by encouraging excessive risk-taking. The Incentive Compensation Guidance, which covers all employees that have the ability to materially affect the risk profile of an institution, either individually or as part of a group, is based upon the key principles that a financial institution’s incentive compensation arrangements should (i) provide incentives that do not encourage risk-taking beyond the institution’s ability to effectively identify and manage risks, (ii) be compatible with effective internal controls and risk management and (iii) be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the institution’s board of directors.
The Federal Reserve reviews, as part of its regular, risk-focused examination process, the incentive compensation arrangements of financial institutions, including us, that are not “large, complex banking organizations.” These reviews are tailored to each financial institution based on the scope and complexity of the institution’s activities and the prevalence of incentive compensation arrangements. The findings of the supervisory initiatives are included in reports of examination. Deficiencies are incorporated into the financial institution’s supervisory ratings, which can affect the institution’s ability to make acquisitions and take other actions. Enforcement actions may be taken against a financial institution if its incentive compensation arrangements, or related risk-management control or governance processes, pose a risk to the institution’s safety and soundness and the institution is not taking prompt and effective measures to correct the deficiencies.
The scope and content of federal bank regulatory agencies’ policies on executive compensation are continuing to develop and are likely to continue evolving in the near future. It cannot be determined at this time whether compliance with such policies will adversely affect our ability to hire, retain and motivate our key employees.
Source of Strength Doctrine
Under long-standing Federal Reserve policy and now codified in the Dodd-Frank Act, a bank holding company is expected to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to each of its subsidiary banks and commit resources to its support. This support may be required at times when the Holding Company may not have the resources to provide it.
Real Estate Lending
Inter-agency guidelines adopted by federal bank regulatory agencies mandate that financial institutions establish real estate lending policies with maximum allowable real estate loan-to-value limits, subject to an allowable amount of non-conforming loans as a percentage of capital. In addition, the federal bank regulatory agencies, including the FDIC, restrict concentrations in commercial real estate lending and have noted that increases in banks’ commercial real estate concentrations can create safety and soundness concerns. The regulatory guidance mandates certain minimal risk management practices and categorizes banks with defined levels of such concentrations as banks requiring elevated examiner scrutiny.
Transactions with Affiliates
Subsidiaries of bank holding companies, like the Bank, are subject to certain restrictions in their dealings with holding company affiliates. Section 23A of the Federal Reserve Act imposes quantitative and qualitative limits on transactions between a bank and any affiliate, including its holding company, and requires certain levels of collateral for extensions of credit to affiliates and certain other transactions involving affiliates. Section 23B requires that certain transactions between the Bank and its affiliates must be on terms substantially the same, or at least as favorable, as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with or involving nonaffiliated companies. In the absence of such comparable transactions, any transaction between banks and their affiliates must be on terms and under circumstances, including credit standards, which in good faith would be offered to or would apply to nonaffiliated companies.
The Bank is also subject to certain restrictions on extensions of credit to executive officers, directors, certain principal shareholders, and their related interests. Extensions of credit include derivative transactions, repurchase and reverse repurchase agreements, and securities borrowing and lending transactions to the extent that such transactions cause a bank to have credit exposure to an insider. Any extension of credit to an insider must be made on substantially the same terms, including interest rates and collateral, as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with third parties, and must not involve more than the normal risk of repayment or present other unfavorable features.
Community Reinvestment Act
The Bank is subject to certain requirements and reporting obligations under the CRA, which requires federal banking regulators to evaluate the record of each financial institution in meeting the credit needs of its local community, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. The CRA further requires these criteria to be considered in evaluating mergers, acquisitions and applications to open a branch or facility. Failure to adequately meet these criteria could result in the imposition of additional requirements and limitations on the Bank. Additionally, financial institutions must publicly disclose the terms of various CRA‑related agreements. In its most recent CRA examination, the Bank received a “satisfactory” rating.
In December 2019, the FDIC and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency proposed changes to the regulations implementing the CRA, which, if adopted will result in changes to the current CRA framework. The Federal Reserve Board did not join the proposal.
Privacy and Data Security
The Federal Reserve, FDIC and other bank regulatory agencies have adopted guidelines for safeguarding confidential, personal customer information. These guidelines require each financial institution, under the supervision and ongoing oversight of its board of directors or an appropriate committee thereof, to create, implement and maintain a comprehensive written information security program designed to ensure the security and confidentiality of customer information, protect against any anticipated threats or hazards to the security or integrity of such information and protect against unauthorized access to or use of such information that could result in substantial harm or inconvenience to any customer. In addition, various federal regulators, including the Federal Reserve and the SEC, have increased their focus on cyber-security through guidance, examinations and regulations. The Bank has adopted a customer information security program that has been approved by its Board of Directors.
Anti-Money Laundering Initiatives, the USA Patriot Act and the Office of Foreign Asset Control
A major focus of governmental policy on financial institutions in recent years has been aimed at combating terrorist financing, money laundering and other criminal acts. This has generally been accomplished by amending existing anti-money laundering laws and regulations. The Patriot Act amended the Currency Consumer Financial Protection and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, commonly referred to as the BSA, to strengthen regulation of money laundering and financing of terrorism. The U.S. Treasury, in cooperation with the FDIC and FinCEN, has issued a number of implementing regulations which apply various requirements of the Patriot Act to the Bank. These regulations impose obligations on financial institutions to maintain appropriate policies, procedures and controls to detect, prevent and report money laundering, terrorist financing and other criminal acts and to verify the identity of their customers. In addition, OFAC, a division of the U.S. Treasury Department charged with administering and enforcing economic and trade sanctions by the U.S. government, publishes lists of persons with which the Bank is prohibited from engaging in business. Over the past several years, federal banking regulators, FinCEN and OFAC have increased supervisory and enforcement attention on U.S. anti-money laundering and sanctions laws, as evidenced by a significant increase in enforcement activity, including several high profile enforcement actions. Several of these actions have addressed violations of the BSA, U.S. sanctions or both, resulting in the imposition of substantial civil monetary penalties. Enforcement actions have increasingly focused on publicly identifying individuals and holding those individuals, including compliance officers, accountable for deficiencies in compliance programs. State attorneys general and the U.S. Department of Justice have also pursued enforcement actions against banking entities alleged to have willfully violated the BSA and U.S. sanctions laws. Failure of a financial institution to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat terrorist financing, or to comply with all of the relevant laws or regulations, can lead to significant monetary penalties and could have other serious legal and reputational consequences for the institution. Our Board has approved policies and procedures that it believes comply with these laws.
Future Legislation and Regulatory Initiatives
Federal and state legislators as well as regulatory agencies may introduce or enact new laws and rules, or amend existing laws and rules that may affect the regulation of United and its subsidiaries in substantial and unpredictable ways, and, if enacted, could increase or decrease the cost of doing business, limit or expand permissible activities or affect the industry’s competitive balance. The nature and extent of future legislative and regulatory changes affecting financial institutions is not known at this time and cannot be predicted. However, any such changes could affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Human Capital Resources
As of January 31, 2021, we had 2,406 full-time equivalent employees. As indicated, we strive to follow the golden rule – trying to treat each other, and our customers, the way we would like to be treated. We believe that our ability to earn the trust of our customers and deliver exceptional customer service hinges on our culture, which in turn depends upon the dedication and engagement of our employees. When employees are dedicated and engaged, they take extra steps for our customers. We have a community bank mindset, empowering employees to make decisions at the local level, while arming our employees with the products, services, and centralized support of a larger institution. We are committed to attracting and retaining talented employees whose values align with our customer service mission, creating meaningful opportunities for training and advancement, and being an extraordinary place to work.
Oversight and Management
Our Board and its Talent and Compensation Committee provide oversight on human capital matters, including overall compensation philosophy, equity award programs, diversity and inclusion, and succession planning. Our Human Resources, Legal, and Compliance departments develop policies associated with our labor and human capital practices, identify risks, and implement practices to mitigate those risks, under the oversight of the Board and its committees. At the management level, our Employee Benefits Committee is responsible for reviewing and approving our employee benefits programs, including healthcare and other benefits. Our Incentive Compensation Committee is responsible for overseeing, reviewing, and approving the non-executive incentive compensation plans for our employees and for assessing the risks associated with those incentive compensation plans.
We offer a variety of medical plans for our employees, including prescription drug coverage and comprehensive dental plan. We also provide long-term disability coverage and life insurance for eligible employees. Our cafeteria plans, or reimbursement accounts, help our employees reduce the costs of medical and dependent care by allowing them to set aside pre-tax dollars. Employees are eligible to contribute to our 401(k) Retirement Plan beginning the first of the month following their date of employment. After one year of employment, employees may become eligible for a company match in an amount up to 5% of total salary.
Additionally, we maintain a stock purchase plan that allows employees to elect to purchase company stock through payroll deductions at a discounted price with no commissions.
In 2020, we provided eligible employees with 80 hours of COVID-19 paid leave. We also provided reimbursement to eligible employees for certain childcare expenses resulting from the pandemic. We are continuing to provide these COVID-19 related benefits in 2021.
Employee Professional Development
Through our professional development initiatives, our internal team and subject matter experts provide our employees with quality continuing education on a variety of topics. The workshops are often held regionally and grouped according to employee function for relevancy and convenience. Participation in continuing education is expected and supported so our employees stay informed and up to date on information, skills, and systems.
Through our memberships with the American Bankers Association, the Risk Management Association, the Mid-Size Bank Coalition of America, and state bankers associations, our employees have access to resources, online training, conferences, and discussion groups designed for bankers at all levels in all roles. We encourage our employees to utilize these resources, and we support our employees’ involvement with these organizations for training, to advance their knowledge and skills sets, and to develop leadership skills. Many of our employees are actively engaged in leadership roles, forums, task forces, and other groups within these organizations.
To encourage, support, and equip our rising leaders with relevant skills, we offer our Leadership Academy, an annual program for a selected group of individuals who exemplify the qualities of a next generation leader. The program is designed to empower emerging leaders with the knowledge and skills necessary to lead our Bank. Participants are selected annually for the multi-month program and engage in strategic projects, leadership and business development sessions, and executive and senior leadership roundtable mentoring. This is intended to allow our highest potential leaders to enhance their knowledge and skills, grow in understanding of our culture and how we do business, and be challenged with assignments that strategically impact the Bank.
Diversity and Inclusion
We strive to foster an open, supportive workplace in which our employees can grow professionally and achieve their potential. We pride ourselves on maintaining workplaces that are intended to inspire employees to voice their ideas and openly express opinions for the betterment of the Bank, our employees, and our customers. We desire that all employees feel that they are operating in an inclusive environment that welcomes and supports differences. We believe that encouraging input from all perspectives allows us to provide our customers with creative ideas and solutions for operating effectively in a complex, ever changing marketplace.
In 2020, we formed our Diversity and Inclusion Council, called the “Power of U.” In addition to leadership provided by our Board and executive management, our Diversity and Inclusion Council is designed to recommend strategies, programs, and opportunities to foster diversity and inclusion. The Power of U is comprised of 14 members from across our geographical footprint and focuses on enhancing the Bank’s culture of teamwork, communication, and connection.
Employee Engagement Surveys
The Best Banks to Work For program, initiated in 2013 by American Banker and Best Companies Group, identifies and recognizes U.S. banks for outstanding employee satisfaction. We are honored to have been named one of American Banker’s 2020 Best Banks to Work For, an award we’ve received for four consecutive years. The Bank is one of only two of the top 50 banks on the list with over $10 billion in assets.
We believe that we are on this list because we listen to our employees and respond to their concerns. Every two years, we conduct an employee engagement survey, facilitated by a third party provider, to seek input and feedback from all of our employees across our entire footprint. Among other things, the survey asks employees to rate and comment on the Bank’s strategies and priorities, customer focus, operations, individual roles and responsibilities, competitiveness for compensation and benefits, work environment, and employee engagement. The survey includes questions that ask employees to score certain questions, as well as allowing employees to provide open-ended feedback responses.
The employment engagement survey results are reviewed and discussed by both executive management and our Board. Our leadership analyzes the survey feedback for areas of improvement, progress, and emphasis. Our leadership takes the survey feedback into account in developing and prioritizing the Bank’s strategic plans and initiatives. We also share an overview of the survey results with our employees and communicate the changes we make in response to the survey to meet our employees’ needs, to enhance our employees’ experience, and to continue to make our company an employer of choice.
We know employees want to work for companies that give back and, as an organization, we believe in the power of coming together for good. In 2020, we conducted our first community engagement survey, facilitated by a third party provider, to seek input and feedback from all of our employees about volunteerism, community issues that are important to them, and how they would like to see us involved in the local communities that we serve. We are using the community engagement survey feedback to enhance our community engagement initiatives and involvement with our local communities.
Information About Our Executive Officers
Information regarding our current executive officers as of February 1, 2021, is set forth below. Each of our executive officers is appointed annually by the Board and serves at the discretion of the Board.
|Name (age)||Position with United and Employment History||Officer of United Since|
|H. Lynn Harton (59)||President, Chief Executive Officer and Director (2018-present); President, Chief Operating Officer and Director (2015-2018)||2012|
|Jefferson L. Harralson (55)||Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (2017-present); prior to joining United was Managing Director at Keefe, Bruyette and Woods (2002–2017)||2017|
|Melinda Davis Lux (48)|
Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary (2020–present); prior to joining United was Partner at Womble Bond Dickinson (US) LLP (2016-2020); prior to joining Womble Bond Dickinson, was Partner at the law firm Wyche, P.A.
|Robert A. Edwards (56)||Executive Vice President and Chief Risk Officer (2019-present); Executive Vice President and Chief Credit Officer (2015-2019)||2015|
|Richard W. Bradshaw (59)||Chief Banking Officer (2019-present); President, Commercial Banking Solutions (2014-2018)||2014|
|Mark Terry (54)||Chief Information Officer (2017-present); Chief Technology Officer (2016-2017); prior to joining United was Chief Information Officer at Palmetto Bancshares, Inc. (2011-2016)||2016|
There are no familial relationships between any of our directors or executive officers. There also are no arrangements or understandings between any executive officer and any other person pursuant to which any of them was elected as an officer, other than arrangements or understandings with directors or officers of United acting solely in their capacities as such.
Our internet website address is www.ucbi.com. We file with or furnish to the SEC annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports, proxy statements and annual reports to shareholders and, from time to time, registration statements and other documents. These documents are available free of charge to the public on or through the “Investor Relations” section of our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file them with or furnish them to the SEC. The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information that we file electronically with, or furnish to, the SEC. The address of that website is www.sec.gov. The information on any website referenced in this Report is not incorporated by reference into, and is not a part of this Report. Further, our references to website URLs are intended to be inactive textual references only.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS.
Investors should carefully consider the information contained or incorporated by reference in this Report before deciding to purchase our common stock. The items discussed below are the material factors that make an investment in our common stock speculative or risky, which could, in turn, have a material effect on our financial condition, results of operations or business. Some of these risks are interrelated and the occurrence of one or more of them may exacerbate the effect of others.
CREDIT AND COUNTERPARTY RISK
We are subject to credit risk from our lending activities.
Lending activities are inherently risky. When we lend money or commit to lend, we incur credit risk or the risk of loss if borrowers do not repay their loans or other credit obligations. Credit risk includes, among other things, the quality of our underwriting, the impact of changes in interest rates and changes in the economic conditions in the markets where we operate as well as across the United States. Increases in interest rates and/or weakening economic conditions could adversely affect the ability of borrowers to repay outstanding loans or the value of the collateral securing these loans. If loan customers with significant loan balances fail to repay their loans, our results of operations, financial condition and capital levels will suffer.
We are exposed to higher credit and concentration risk from our commercial real estate, commercial and industrial and commercial construction lending.
Our credit risk and credit losses can increase if our loans become concentrated to borrowers engaged in the same or similar activities or to borrowers who as a group may be uniquely or disproportionately affected by economic or market conditions. As of December 31, 2020, approximately 79% of our loan portfolio consisted of commercial loans, including commercial and industrial, equipment financing, commercial construction and commercial real estate mortgage loans. Our borrowers under these loans tend to be small to medium-sized businesses. These types of loans are typically larger than residential real estate loans or consumer loans. During periods of lower economic growth or challenging economic periods, small to medium-sized businesses may be impacted more severely and more quickly than larger businesses. Consequently, the ability of such businesses to repay their loans may deteriorate, and in some cases this deterioration may occur quickly, which would adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. An increase in non-performing loans could result in a net loss of earnings from these loans, an increase in the provision for loan losses and an increase in loan charge-offs, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Deterioration in economic conditions, housing conditions and commodity and real estate values and an increase in unemployment in certain states or locations could result in materially higher credit losses if loans are concentrated in those locations. Our loans are heavily concentrated in our primary markets of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee and Florida. These markets may have different or weaker performance than other areas of the country and our portfolio may be more negatively impacted than a financial services company with wider geographic diversity.
See the section captioned “Loans” in the “Balance Sheet Review” section of Part II, Item 7. MD&A of this Report for further discussion related to commercial and industrial, construction and commercial real estate loans.
If our allowance for credit losses was required to be increased because it is not large enough to cover actual losses in our loan portfolio, our results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.
We maintain an ACL, which is a reserve established through a provision for credit losses charged to expense. After adopting ASC 326, the ACL reflects our assessment of the current expected losses over the life of the loan using historical experience, current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts. CECL has created more volatility in the level of our ACL because it relies on macroeconomic forecasts. It is possible that CECL may increase the cost of lending in the industry and result in slower loan growth and lower levels of net income. The level of the allowance reflects our continuing evaluation of factors including current economic forecasts, historical loss experience, the volume and types of loans, and specific credit risks. The determination of the appropriate level of the ACL inherently involves subjectivity in our modeling and requires us to make estimates of current credit risks and future trends, all of which may undergo material changes or vary from our historical experience. Deterioration in economic conditions affecting borrowers, changing economic forecasts, new information regarding existing loans, identification of additional problem loans and other factors, both within and outside of our control, may require an increase in the ACL. If we are required to materially increase our level of ACL for any reason, such increase could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, bank regulatory agencies periodically review our ACL and may require an increase in the provision for credit losses or the recognition of further loan charge-offs, based on judgments different than those of management. Furthermore, if charge-offs in future periods exceed the ACL, we will need additional provisions to increase the ACL. Any increases in the ACL will result in a decrease in net income and, possibly, capital, and may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
See the section captioned “Allowance for Credit Losses” in Part II, Item 7. MD&A of this Report for further discussion related to our process for determining the appropriate level of the ACL.
The soundness of other financial institutions could adversely affect us.
Our ability to engage in routine funding transactions could be adversely affected by the actions and financial stability of other financial institutions. Financial services institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty or other relationships. This is sometimes referred to as “systemic risk” and may adversely affect financial intermediaries, such as clearing agencies, clearing houses, banks, securities firms and exchanges, with which we interact daily, and therefore could adversely affect us. We have exposure to various counterparties, including clearing houses, brokers and dealers, commercial and correspondent banks, and others. As a result, defaults by, or rumors or questions about, one or more financial services institutions, or the financial services industry generally, may result in market-wide liquidity problems and could lead to losses or defaults by such other institutions. Such occurrences could expose us to credit risk in the event of default of one or more counterparties and could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and liquidity.
The inability to maintain or raise funds in amounts adequate to meet our needs could impair our ability to fund our operations and jeopardize our financial condition.
Liquidity represents an institution’s ability to provide funds to satisfy demands from depositors, borrowers and other creditors by either converting assets into cash or accessing new or existing sources of incremental funds. Liquidity risk arises from the possibility that we may be unable to satisfy current or future funding requirements and needs.
The objective of managing liquidity risk is to ensure that our cash flow requirements resulting from depositor, borrower and other creditor demands as well as our operating cash needs, are met, and that our cost of funding such requirements and needs is reasonable. We maintain an asset/liability and interest rate risk policy and a liquidity and funds management policy, including a contingency funding plan that, among other things, include procedures for managing and monitoring liquidity risk. Generally, we rely on deposits, repayments of loans and leases and cash flows from our investment securities as our primary sources of funds. Our principal deposit sources include consumer, commercial and public funds customers in our markets. We have used these funds, together with wholesale deposit sources such as brokered deposits, along with FHLB advances, federal funds purchased and other sources of short-term and long-term borrowings, to make loans and leases, acquire investment securities and other assets and to fund continuing operations.
An inability to maintain or raise funds in amounts necessary to meet our liquidity needs could have a substantial negative effect, individually or collectively, on our liquidity. Our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance our activities, or on terms attractive to us, could be impaired by factors that affect us specifically or the financial services industry in general. For example, factors that could detrimentally impact our access to liquidity sources include a decrease in the level of our business activity due to a market downturn or adverse regulatory action against us, a reduction in our credit rating, any damage to our reputation or any other decrease in depositor or investor confidence in our creditworthiness and business. Our access to liquidity could also be impaired by factors that are not specific to us, such as severe volatility or disruption of the financial markets or negative views and expectations about the prospects for the financial services industry as a whole. Any such event or failure to manage our liquidity effectively could affect our competitive position, increase our borrowing costs and the interest rates we pay on deposits, limit our access to the capital markets and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition.
Deposit levels may be affected by several factors, including rates paid by competitors, general interest rate levels, returns available to customers on alternative investments, general economic and market conditions and other factors. Loan and lease repayments are a relatively stable source of funds but are subject to the borrowers’ and lessees’ ability to repay loans and leases, which can be adversely affected by a number of factors including changes in general economic conditions, adverse trends or events affecting business industry groups or specific businesses, declines in real estate values or markets, business closings or lay-offs, inclement weather, natural disasters and other factors. Furthermore, loans and leases generally are not readily convertible to cash. Accordingly, we may be required from time to time to rely on secondary sources of liquidity to meet growth in loans and leases, deposit withdrawal demands or otherwise fund operations. Such secondary sources include FHLB advances, brokered deposits, secured and unsecured federal funds lines of credit from correspondent banks, Federal Reserve borrowings and/or accessing the equity or debt capital markets.
The availability of these secondary funding sources is subject to broad economic conditions, to regulation and to investor assessment of our financial strength and, as such, the cost of funds may fluctuate significantly and/or the availability of such funds may be restricted, thus impacting our net interest income, our immediate liquidity and/or our access to additional liquidity. If we fail to remain “well-capitalized” our ability to utilize brokered deposits may be restricted. We have somewhat similar risks to the extent high balance core deposits exceed the amount of deposit insurance coverage available.
We anticipate we will continue to rely primarily on deposits, loan and lease repayments, and cash flows from our investment securities to provide liquidity. Additionally, when necessary, the secondary sources of borrowed funds described above will be used to augment our primary funding sources. If we are unable to access any of these secondary funding sources when needed, we might be unable to meet our customers’ or creditors’ needs, which would adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity.
We may need to raise additional capital in the future to support our operations and business plan and our ability to raise capital and maintain required capital levels could be adversely affected by changes in the capital markets and deteriorating economic and market conditions.
Federal and state bank regulators require United and the Bank to maintain adequate levels of capital to support operations. At December 31, 2020, both the Holding Company’s and the Bank’s regulatory capital ratios were above “well-capitalized” levels under regulatory guidelines. However, our business strategy calls for continued growth in our existing banking markets and targeted expansion in new markets. Growth in assets at rates in excess of the rate at which our capital is increased through retained earnings will reduce our capital ratios unless we continue to increase capital via other means. Failure by us to meet applicable capital guidelines or to satisfy certain other regulatory requirements could subject us to a variety of enforcement remedies available to the federal regulatory authorities (including a capital directive) and would negatively impact our ability to pursue acquisitions or other expansion opportunities.
We may need to raise additional capital (including through the issuance of common stock) in the future to provide us with sufficient capital resources to meet our commitments and business needs or in connection with acquisitions. Our ability to maintain capital levels could be impacted by negative perceptions of our business or prospects, changes in the capital markets and deteriorating economic and market conditions.
We cannot assure you that access to capital will be available to us on acceptable terms or at all. Any occurrence that may limit our access to the capital markets may materially and adversely affect our capital costs and our ability to raise capital and/or debt and, in turn, our liquidity. If we cannot raise additional capital when needed, our ability to expand through internal growth or acquisitions or to continue operations could be impaired, and we may need to finance or liquidate unencumbered assets to meet maturing liabilities. We may be unable to do so or have to do so on terms which are unfavorable, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
The inability of our subsidiaries to declare and pay dividends or other distributions to the Holding Company could adversely affect its liquidity and ability to declare and pay dividends.
While our Board, since 2013, has approved the payment of a quarterly cash dividend on our common stock, there can be no assurance whether or when we may pay dividends in the future. Future dividends, if any, will be declared and paid at the Board’s discretion and will depend on a number of factors including, among others, asset quality, earnings performance, liquidity and capital requirements. Our principal source of funds used to pay cash dividends on our common and preferred stock is dividends that we receive from the Bank. As a Georgia state-chartered bank, the Bank is subject to limitations on the amount of dividends that it is permitted to pay, as described under “Supervision and Regulation - Payment of Dividends” in Part I, Item 1 of this Report. The federal banking agencies have also issued policy statements which provide that bank holding companies and insured banks should generally only pay dividends out of current earnings. The Federal Reserve may also prevent the payment of a dividend by the Bank if it determines that the payment would be an unsafe and unsound banking practice. The Holding Company and the Bank must also maintain the CET1 capital conservation buffer of 2.5% to avoid becoming subject to restrictions on capital distributions, including dividends. If the Bank is not permitted to pay cash dividends to the Holding Company, it is unlikely that we would be able to continue to pay dividends on our common stock or to pay interest on our indebtedness.
In addition, the terms of our debentures and preferred stock prohibit us from paying dividends on our common stock until we have made required payments (including any deferred payments) under the debentures and preferred stock. See “MARKET RISKS - Holders of our indebtedness have rights that are senior to those of our common shareholders.”
We are dependent on our information technology and telecommunications systems and third-party servicers, and systems failures, interruptions, cyber-attacks or breaches of security could disrupt our business and have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our operations rely on the secure processing, storage and transmission of confidential and other information in our computer systems and networks as well as through the internet through digital and mobile technologies. Although we take protective measures and
endeavor to modify these systems as circumstances warrant, the advances in technology increase the risk of information security breaches. We provide our customers the ability to bank remotely, including over the Internet or through their mobile device. The secure transmission of confidential information is a critical element of remote and mobile banking. Any failure, interruption or breach in security of these systems could result in disruptions to our accounting, deposit, loan and other systems, and adversely affect our customer relationships.
There have been increasing efforts on the part of third parties, including through cyber-attacks, to breach data security at financial institutions or with respect to financial transactions. There have been several recent instances involving financial services, credit bureaus and consumer-based companies reporting the unauthorized disclosure of client or customer information or the destruction or theft of corporate data, by both private individuals and foreign governments. In addition, because the techniques used to cause such security breaches change frequently, often are not recognized until launched against a target and may originate from less regulated and remote areas around the world, we may be unable to proactively address these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. Our network, and the systems of parties with whom we contract, could be vulnerable to unauthorized access, computer viruses, phishing schemes, spam attacks, human error, natural disasters, power loss and other security breaches.
Cyber threats are rapidly evolving and we may not be able to anticipate or prevent all such attacks. These risks are heightened through the increasing use of digital and mobile solutions which allow for rapid money movement and increase the difficulty to detect and prevent fraudulent transactions. We may be required to spend significant capital and other resources to protect against the threat of security breaches and computer viruses, or to alleviate problems caused by security breaches or viruses. To the extent that our activities or the activities of our customers involve the storage and transmission of confidential information, security breaches (including breaches of security of customer systems and networks) and viruses could expose us to claims, litigation and other possible liabilities. Any inability to prevent security breaches or computer viruses could also cause existing customers to lose confidence in our systems and could adversely affect our reputation, results of operations and ability to attract and maintain customers and businesses. In addition, a security breach could also subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny, expose us to civil litigation and possible financial liability and cause reputational damage.
We rely on information technology and telecommunications systems and certain third-party service providers and certain failures could materially adversely affect our operations.
Our business is highly dependent on the successful and uninterrupted functioning of our information technology and telecommunications systems, third-party accounting systems and mobile and online banking platforms. We outsource many of our major systems, such as data processing, loan servicing and deposit processing systems and online banking platforms. While we have selected these vendors carefully, we do not control their actions. The failure of these systems, or the termination of a third-party software license or service agreement on which any of these systems is based, could interrupt our operations. Financial or operational difficulties of a vendor could also hurt our operations if those difficulties interfere with the vendor’s ability to serve us. Furthermore, our vendors could also be sources of operational and information security risk to us, including from breakdowns or failures of their own systems or capacity constraints. Replacing these third-party vendors could also create significant delay and expense. Because our information technology and telecommunications systems interface with and depend on third-party systems, we could experience service denials if demand for such services exceeds capacity or such third-party systems fail or experience interruptions. If sustained or repeated, a system failure or service denial could result in a deterioration of our ability to process new and renewal loans, gather deposits and provide customer service, compromise our ability to operate effectively, damage our reputation, result in a loss of customer business and/or subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny and possible financial liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Failure to keep pace with technological changes could adversely affect our business.
The financial services industry is continually undergoing rapid technological change with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. The effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to better serve customers and to reduce costs. Our future success depends, in part, upon our ability to address the needs of our customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands, as well as to create additional efficiencies in our operations. Many of our competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements. We may not be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services or be successful in marketing these products and services to our customers. Failure to successfully keep pace with technological change affecting the financial services industry could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Competition from financial institutions and other financial service providers may adversely affect our profitability.
The banking business is highly competitive and we experience competition in each of our markets from many other financial institutions. We compete with banks, credit unions, savings and loan associations, mortgage banking firms, securities brokerage firms, insurance companies, money market funds and other mutual funds, as well as community, super-regional, national and international financial institutions that operate offices in our market areas and elsewhere. The financial services industry could become even more competitive as a result of legislative and regulatory changes. In addition, as customer preferences and expectations continue to evolve, technology has lowered barriers to entry and made it possible for nonbanks to offer products and services traditionally provided by banks, such as automatic transfer and automatic payment systems. We compete with these institutions both in attracting deposits and in making loans. Many of our competitors are well-established, larger financial institutions that can operate profitably with a narrower net interest margin and have a more diverse revenue base. In addition, many have fewer regulatory constraints and may have lower cost structures. We may face a competitive disadvantage as a result of our smaller size, more limited geographic diversification and inability to spread costs across broader markets. Although we compete by concentrating marketing efforts in our primary markets with local advertisements, personal contacts and greater flexibility and responsiveness in working with local customers, customer loyalty can be easily influenced by a competitor’s new products and our strategy may or may not continue to be successful. Failure to perform in any of these areas could significantly weaken our competitive position, which could adversely affect our growth and profitability which, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We may also be affected by the marketplace loosening of credit underwriting standards and structures.
An ineffective risk management framework could have a material adverse effect on our strategic planning and our ability to mitigate risks and/or losses and could have adverse regulatory consequences.
We have implemented a risk management framework to identify and manage our risk exposure. This framework is comprised of various processes, systems and strategies, and is designed to manage the types of risk to which we are subject, including, among others, credit, market, liquidity, operational, capital, compliance, strategic and reputational risks. Our framework also includes financial, analytical, forecasting, or other modeling methodologies, which involves management assumptions and judgment. In addition, our Board, in consultation with management, has adopted a risk appetite statement, which sets forth certain thresholds and limits to govern our overall risk profile. However, there is no assurance that our risk management framework, including the risk metrics under our risk appetite statement, will be effective under all circumstances or that it will adequately identify, manage or mitigate any risk or loss to us. If our risk management framework is not effective, we could suffer unexpected losses and become subject to regulatory consequences, as a result of which our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects could be materially adversely affected.
We may be subject to losses due to fraudulent and negligent conduct of our loan customers, third-party service providers and employees.
When we make loans to individuals or entities, we rely upon information supplied by borrowers and other third parties, including information contained in the applicant’s loan application, property appraisal reports, title information and the borrower’s net worth, liquidity and cash flow information. While we attempt to verify information provided through available sources, we cannot be certain all such information is correct or complete. Our reliance on incorrect or incomplete information could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations. These losses may be material and negatively affect our results of operations, financial condition or prospects. These losses could also lead to significant reputational risks and other effects. The sophistication of external fraud actors continues to increase, and in some cases includes large criminal rings, which increases the resources and infrastructure needed to thwart these attacks. The industry fraud threat continues to evolve, including but not limited to card fraud, check fraud, social engineering and phishing attacks for identity theft and account takeover.
Our inability to retain management and key employees or to attract new experienced financial services or technology professionals could impair our relationship with our customers, reduce growth and adversely affect our business.
We have assembled a management team which has substantial background and experience in banking and financial services in our markets. Moreover, much of our organic loan growth in recent years was the result of our ability to attract experienced financial services professionals who have been able to attract customers from other financial institutions. We anticipate deploying a similar hiring strategy in the future. Operating our technology systems requires employees with specialized skills that are not readily available in the general employee candidate pool. Inability to retain these key personnel (including key personnel of the businesses we have acquired) or to continue to attract experienced lenders with established books of business could negatively impact our growth because of the loss of these individuals’ skills and customer relationships and/or the potential difficulty of promptly replacing them. Moreover, the higher costs we must pay to hire and retain these experienced individuals could cause our noninterest expense levels to rise and negatively impact our results of operations.
We are subject to certain litigation, and our expenses related to this litigation may adversely affect our results.
We are from time to time subject to certain litigation in the ordinary course of our business. As we hire new revenue producing employees, we, and the employees we hire, may also periodically be the subject of litigation and threatened litigation with these employees’ former employers. We may also be subject to claims related to our loan servicing programs, particularly those involving servicing of commercial real estate loans. From time to time, and particularly during periods of economic stress, customers, including real estate developers and consumer borrowers, may make claims or otherwise take legal action pertaining to performance of our responsibilities. These claims are often referred to as “lender liability” claims and are sometimes brought in an effort to produce or increase leverage against us in workout negotiations or debt collection proceedings. Lender liability claims frequently assert one or more of the following allegations: breach of fiduciary duties, fraud, economic duress, breach of contract, breach of the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing, and similar claims.
These and other claims and legal actions, as well as supervisory and enforcement actions by our regulators, including the CFPB or other regulatory agencies with which we deal, including those with oversight of our loan servicing programs, could involve large monetary claims, capital directives, agreements with federal regulators, cease and desist orders and significant defense costs. The outcome of any such cases or actions is uncertain. Substantial legal liability or significant regulatory action against us could have material adverse financial effects or cause significant reputational harm to us, which in turn could seriously harm our business prospects.
Environmental liability associated with commercial lending could result in losses.
In the course of business, we may acquire, through foreclosure, or deed in lieu of foreclosure, properties securing loans we have originated or purchased which are in default. Particularly in commercial real estate lending, there is a risk that hazardous substances could be discovered on these properties. In this event, we might be required to remove these substances from the affected properties at our sole cost and expense. The cost of this removal could substantially exceed the value of affected properties. We may not have adequate remedies against the prior owner or other responsible parties and could find it difficult or impossible to sell the affected properties. These events could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
REGULATORY COMPLIANCE RISK
We are subject to extensive regulation that could restrict our activities. Additionally, changes in laws and regulations or failures to comply with such laws and regulations may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Government regulation and legislation subject United and other financial institutions to restrictions, oversight and/or costs that may have an impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations or the price of our common stock. We are heavily regulated by federal and state authorities. This regulation is designed primarily to protect depositors, federal deposit insurance funds and the banking system as a whole, but not shareholders. Congress and state legislatures and federal and state regulatory authorities continually review banking laws, regulations and policies for possible changes. Changes to statutes, regulations or regulatory policies, including interpretation and implementation of statutes, regulations or policies could affect us in substantial and unpredictable ways, including limiting the types of financial services and products we may offer or increasing the ability of non-banks to offer competing financial services and products. Any regulatory changes or scrutiny could increase or decrease the cost of doing business, limit or expand our permissible activities, or affect the competitive balance among banks, credit unions, savings and loan associations and other institutions. We cannot predict whether new legislation will be enacted and, if enacted, the effect that it, or any regulations, would have on our business, financial condition, or results of operations.
Federal and state regulators can impose or request that we consent to substantial sanctions, restrictions and requirements on our bank and nonbank subsidiaries if they determine, upon examination or otherwise, violations of laws, rules or regulations with which we or our subsidiaries must comply, or weaknesses or failures with respect to general standards of safety and soundness. Such enforcement may be formal or informal and can include directors’ resolutions, memoranda of understanding, cease and desist or consent orders, civil money penalties and termination of deposit insurance and bank closures. Enforcement actions may be taken regardless of the capital level of the institution. In particular, institutions that are not sufficiently capitalized in accordance with regulatory standards may also face capital directives or prompt corrective action. Enforcement actions may require certain corrective steps (including staff additions or changes), impose limits on activities (such as lending, deposit taking, acquisitions or branching), prescribe lending parameters (such as loan types, volumes and terms) and require additional capital to be raised, any of which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. Enforcement actions, including the imposition of monetary penalties, may have a material impact on our financial condition or results of operations, damage our reputation, and result in the loss of our holding company status. In addition, compliance with any such action could distract management’s attention from our operations, cause us to incur significant expenses, restrict us from engaging in potentially profitable activities and limit our ability to raise capital. Closure of the Bank would result in a total loss of your investment.
In addition to other banking regulations, the federal BSA, the Patriot Act and other laws and regulations require financial institutions, among other duties, to institute and maintain effective anti-money laundering programs and file suspicious activity and currency transaction reports as appropriate. The federal FinCEN, established by the Treasury to administer the BSA, is authorized to impose significant civil money penalties for violations of those requirements and has recently engaged in coordinated enforcement efforts with the individual federal bank regulatory agencies, as well as the U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration and Internal Revenue Service. There is also increased scrutiny of compliance with the rules enforced by the OFAC. Federal and state bank regulators also have begun to focus on compliance with BSA and anti-money laundering regulations. If our policies, procedures and systems are deemed deficient, we would be subject to liability, including fines and regulatory actions such as restrictions on our ability to pay dividends and the necessity to obtain regulatory approvals to proceed with certain aspects of our business plan, including any acquisition plans that we have, which would negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. Failure to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing could also have serious reputational consequences for us.
Changes to capital requirements for bank holding companies and depository institutions may restrict our ability to pay or increase dividends on or repurchase our common stock and may negatively affect our results of operations.
We are subject to regulatory requirements specifying minimum amounts and types of capital that we must maintain. From time to time, the regulators change these regulatory capital adequacy guidelines. In particular, the capital requirements applicable to us under the Basel III rules became fully effective on January 1, 2019. We are now required to satisfy additional, more stringent, capital adequacy standards than we had in the past, including the 2.5% capital conservation buffer. Failure to meet minimum capital requirements could result in certain mandatory and possible additional discretionary actions by regulators that, if undertaken, could have an adverse material effect on our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, these requirements could have a negative impact on our ability to lend, grow deposit balances, make acquisitions or make capital distributions in the form of dividends, share repurchases or redemptions. Higher capital levels could also lower our return on equity.
Issuance of additional common stock or other equity securities required to meet regulatory requirements in the future could dilute the ownership interest of existing shareholders.
In order to maintain capital at desired or regulatory-required levels, we may issue or be required to issue additional shares of common stock, or securities convertible into, exchangeable for or representing rights to acquire shares of common stock. We may sell these shares at prices below the current market price of shares, and the sale of these shares may significantly dilute shareholder ownership. We could also issue additional shares in connection with acquisitions of other financial institutions or other investments, which could also dilute shareholder ownership.
As a participating lender in the SBA PPP, the Company and the Bank are subject to litigation risk regarding the Bank’s processing of loans for the PPP, reputational risk, and risk that the SBA may not fund some or all PPP loan guaranties.
In March 2020, the CARES Act, which included a $349 billion loan program administered through the SBA referred to as the PPP, was enacted. The $349 billion in funds for the PPP was exhausted on April 16, 2020. On April 27, 2020, the program was reopened with an additional $310 billion approved by Congress. Under the PPP, small businesses and other entities and individuals can apply for loans from existing SBA lenders and other approved regulated lenders that enroll in the program, subject to detailed qualifications and eligibility criteria. The Bank is participating as a lender in the PPP. Under the PPP, we originated loans for $1.17 billion in the aggregate. In addition, through the acquisition of Three Shores, we acquired $217 million in the aggregate of PPP loans on July 1, 2020.
Because of the short timeframe between the passing of the CARES Act and implementation of the PPP, some of the rules and guidance relating to PPP were issued after lenders began processing PPP applications. Also, there was and continues to be uncertainty in the laws, rules, and guidance relating to the PPP. Since the opening of the PPP, several banks have been subject to litigation regarding the procedures used in processing PPP applications. In addition, some banks and borrowers have received negative media attention associated with PPP loans. Although we monitored all PPP laws, regulations, and guidance and believe that we implemented all requirements upon issuance of such laws, regulations, and guidance, the Company and the Bank may be exposed to litigation risk and/or negative media attention regarding the processing of PPP applications, funding of PPP loans, and the future servicing and forgiveness of PPP loans. If any such litigation is filed against the Company or the Bank and is not resolved in a manner favorable to the Company or the Bank, it may result in significant financial liability or adversely affect the Company’s reputation. In addition, litigation can be costly, regardless of outcome. Any financial liability, litigation costs, or reputational damage caused by PPP related litigation or media attention could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The Bank also has credit risk on PPP loans if the SBA determines that there is a deficiency in the manner in which any loans were originated, funded, or serviced by the Bank, including any issue with the eligibility of a borrower to receive a PPP loan. In the event of
a loss resulting from a default on a PPP loan and a determination by the SBA that there was a deficiency in the manner in which the PPP loan was originated, funded, or serviced by the Bank, the SBA may deny its liability under the guaranty, reduce the amount of the guaranty, or, if the SBA has already paid under the guaranty, seek recovery of any loss related to the deficiency from the Bank.
Disruptions in the operation of government or changes in government funding may adversely affect us.
Certain of our operations and customers are dependent on the regular operation of the federal or state government or programs they administer. For example, our SBA lending program depends on interaction with the SBA, an independent agency of the federal government. During a lapse in funding, such as has occurred during previous federal government “shutdowns”, the SBA may not be able to engage in such interaction. Similarly, loans we make through USDA lending programs may be delayed or adversely affected by lapses in funding for the USDA. In addition, customers who depend directly or indirectly on providing goods and services to federal or state governments or their agencies may reduce their business with us or delay repayment of loans due to lost or delayed revenue from those relationships. If funding for these lending programs or federal spending generally is reduced as part of the appropriations process or by administrative decision, demand for our services may be reduced. Any of these developments could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
Changes in the method pursuant to which LIBOR and other benchmark rates are determined could adversely impact our business and results of operations.
LIBOR and certain other “benchmarks” are the subject of recent national, international and other regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. These reforms may cause such benchmarks to perform differently than in the past or have other consequences which cannot be predicted. Our floating-rate funding, certain hedging transactions and certain of the products that we offer, such as floating-rate loans and mortgages, determine their applicable interest rate or payment amount by reference to a benchmark rate, such as LIBOR, SOFR, the prime rate or the federal funds rate. In July 2017, the Chief Executive of the FCA announced that the FCA intends to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. This announcement indicates that the continuation of LIBOR on the current basis cannot and will not be guaranteed after 2021. Consequently, at this time, it is not possible to predict whether and to what extent banks will continue to provide submissions for the calculation of LIBOR. Similarly, it is not possible to predict whether LIBOR will continue to be viewed as an acceptable market benchmark, what rate or rates may become accepted alternatives to LIBOR, or what the effect of any such changes in views or alternatives may be on the markets for LIBOR-linked financial instruments.
Although we are currently unable to assess what the ultimate impact of the transition from LIBOR will be, the market transition away from LIBOR to an alternative reference rate is complex and the failure to adequately manage the transition could have a range of material adverse effects on our business, financial condition and results of operations, including the potential to:
•adversely affect the interest rates paid or received on, and the revenue and expenses associated with, our floating rate obligations, loans, deposits, derivatives and other financial instruments tied to LIBOR rates, or other securities or financial arrangements given LIBOR’s role in determining market interest rates globally;
•adversely affect the value of our floating rate obligations, loans, deposits, derivatives and other financial instruments tied to LIBOR rates, or other securities or financial arrangements given LIBOR’s role in determining market interest rates globally;
•prompt inquiries or other actions from regulators in respect of our preparation and readiness for the replacement of LIBOR with an alternative reference rate;
•result in disputes, litigation or other actions with counterparties regarding the interpretation and enforceability of certain fallback language in LIBOR-based securities; and
•require the transition to or development of appropriate systems and analytics to effectively transition our risk management processes from LIBOR-based products to those based on the applicable alternative pricing benchmark.
The manner and impact of this transition, as well as the effect of these developments on our funding costs, loan and investment and trading securities portfolios, asset-liability management and business, is uncertain.
Adverse conditions in the business or economic environment where we operate, as well as broader conditions, globally and in the United States, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our success depends significantly upon local, national and global economic and political conditions, as well as governmental monetary policies and trade relations. Our financial performance generally, and in particular the ability of borrowers to pay interest on and repay principal of outstanding loans and the value of collateral securing those loans, as well as demand for loans and other products and services we offer, is highly dependent upon the business environment in the markets where we operate and in the United States as a whole. Unlike banks that are more geographically diversified, we are a regional bank that provides services to customers primarily in Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee and Florida. The market conditions in these markets may be different from, and could be worse than, the economic conditions in the United States as a whole. Adverse changes in business and economic conditions generally or specifically in the markets in which we operate could affect impact our business, including causing one or more of the following negative developments:
•a decrease in the demand for loans and other products and services offered by us;
•a decrease in the value of the collateral securing our residential or commercial real estate loans;
•a permanent impairment of our assets; or
•an increase in the number of customers or other counterparties who default on their loans or other obligations to us, which could result in a higher level of NPAs, net charge-offs and provision for loan losses.
Our success is also influenced heavily by population growth, income levels, loans and deposits and on stability in real estate values in our markets. If the communities in which we operate do not grow or if prevailing economic conditions locally or nationally weaken significantly, our business may be adversely affected. If market and economic conditions deteriorate, this may lead to valuation adjustments on our loan portfolio and losses on defaulted loans and on the sale of other real estate owned. Additionally, such adverse economic conditions in our market areas, specifically decreases in real estate property values due to the nature of our loan portfolio, the majority of which is secured by real estate, could reduce our growth rate, affect the ability of our customers to repay their loans and generally affect our financial condition and results of operations. We are less able than larger institutions to spread the risks of unfavorable local economic conditions across a larger number of more diverse economies.
Changes in interest rate levels could negatively affect the demand for our products, our net interest margin, and consequently our net earnings, and our ability to manage interest rate risk exposure may be ineffective.
Our profitability is dependent to a large extent on net interest income, which is the difference between interest income earned on loans, leases and investment securities and interest expense paid on deposits, other borrowings, senior debt and subordinated notes. The absolute level of interest rates as well as changes in interest rates, including changes to the shape of the yield curve, may affect our level of interest income, the primary component of our gross revenue, as well as the level of our interest expense. In a period of changing interest rates, interest expense may increase at different rates than the interest earned on assets, impacting our net interest income. Interest rate fluctuations are caused by many factors which, for the most part, are not under our control. For example, national monetary policy implemented by the Federal Reserve plays a significant role in the determination of interest rates. Additionally, competitor pricing and the resulting negotiations that occur with our customers also impact the rates we collect on loans and the rates we pay on deposits. In addition, the discontinuance of LIBOR as a reference rate, and the uncertainty related to such potential changes, may adversely affect the value of reference rate-linked loans, debt securities and derivatives that we hold or issue, which could further impact our interest rate spread.
Changes in the level of interest rates also may negatively affect demand for, and thus our ability to originate, loans, the value of our assets and our ability to realize gains from the sale of our assets, all of which ultimately affect our results of operations and financial condition. A decline in the market value of our assets may limit our ability to borrow additional funds. As a result, we could be required to sell some of our loans and investments under adverse market conditions, upon terms that are not favorable to us, in order to maintain our liquidity. If those sales are made at prices lower than the amortized costs of the investments, we will incur losses.
Because of significant competitive pressures in our markets and the negative impact of these pressures on our deposit and loan pricing, coupled with the fact that a significant portion of our loan portfolio has variable rate pricing that moves in concert with changes to LIBOR or other benchmark rates (which are at relatively low levels as a result of macroeconomic conditions), our net interest margin may be negatively impacted if these short-term rates remain at their low levels or decrease further. However, if short-term interest rates rise, our results of operations may also be negatively impacted if we are unable to increase the rates we charge on loans or earn on our investment securities in excess of the increases we must pay on deposits and our other funding sources. As interest rates change, we expect that we will periodically experience “gaps” in the interest rate sensitivities of our assets and liabilities, meaning that either our interest-bearing liabilities (usually deposits and borrowings) will be more sensitive to changes in market interest rates than
our interest-earning assets (usually loans and investment securities), or vice versa. In either event, if market interest rates should move contrary to our position, this “gap” may work against us, and our results of operations and financial condition may be negatively affected.
We have historically entered into certain hedging transactions including interest rate swaps, which are designed to lessen elements of our interest rate exposure. If interest rates do not change in the manner anticipated, such transactions may not be effective and our results of operations may be adversely affected.
The COVID-19 pandemic is expected to continue to disrupt and adversely affect our business and results of operations, and the ultimate impacts of the pandemic on our business, financial condition and results of operations will depend on future developments and other factors that are highly uncertain and will be impacted by the scope and duration of the pandemic and actions taken by governmental authorities in response to the pandemic.
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has caused and will continue to cause significant disruption in the international and United States economies and financial markets and has had an adverse effect on our business and results of operations. The spread of COVID-19 has caused illness and death resulting in quarantines, cancellation of events and travel, business and school shutdowns, reduction in business activity and financial transactions, supply chain interruptions, and overall economic and financial market instability. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the governments of the states in which we have branches, and most other states, have taken preventative or protective actions, such as imposing restrictions on travel and business operations, advising or requiring individuals to limit or forego their time outside of their homes, and ordering temporary closures of businesses that have been deemed to be non-essential. These restrictions and other consequences of the pandemic have resulted in significant adverse effects for many different types of businesses, including, among others, those in the hospitality (including hotels and lodging) and restaurant industries, and have resulted in a significant number of layoffs and furloughs of employees nationwide and in the regions in which we operate.
The ultimate effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the broader economy and the markets that we serve are not known, nor is the ultimate length of the restrictions described above and any accompanying effects. Moreover, the Federal Reserve has taken action to lower the Federal Funds rate, which may negatively affect our interest income and, therefore, earnings, financial condition, and results of operation. Additional impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business could be widespread and material, and may include, or exacerbate, among other consequences, any of the risk factors described herein or any of the following:
•employees contracting COVID-19;
•reductions in operating effectiveness as employees work from home;
•a work stoppage, forced quarantine, or other interruption of our business;
•unavailability of key personnel necessary to conduct our business activities;
•effects on key employees, including operational management personnel and those charged with preparing, monitoring, and evaluating our financial reporting and internal controls;
•increased cybersecurity risks as a result of many of our employees working remotely;
•sustained closures of branch lobbies or the offices or businesses of our customers;
•declines in demand for loans and other banking services and products;
•reduced consumer spending due to job losses and other effects attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic;
•unprecedented volatility in United States financial markets;
•volatile performance of our investment securities portfolio;
•decline in the credit quality of our loan portfolio resulting from the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in our markets, leading to a need to increase the ACL, as applicable;
•increases in the ACL resulting from CECL, either alone or as affected by the impact of COVID-19;
•declines in value of collateral for loans, including real estate collateral;
•declines in the net worth and liquidity of borrowers and loan guarantors, impairing their ability to honor commitments to us, which may affect, among other things, the levels of NPAs, charge-offs, and provision expense; and
•declines in demand resulting from businesses deemed to be “non-essential” by governments in the markets that we serve, and from both “non-essential” and “essential” businesses suffering adverse effects from reduced levels of economic activity.
These factors, together or in combination with other events or occurrences that may not yet be known or anticipated, may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in meaningfully lower stock prices for many companies, as well as the trading prices for many other securities. The further spread of COVID-19, as well as ongoing or new governmental, regulatory, and private sector responses to the pandemic, may materially disrupt banking and other economic activity generally and in the areas in which we operate. This could result in further decline in demand for our banking products and services, and could negatively impact, among other things,
our liquidity, regulatory capital, and our growth strategy. Any one or more of these developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Although we are taking precautions to protect the safety and well-being of our employees and customers, if we experience a prolonged disruption in our employees’ ability to provide customer support and service, our business, financial condition, and results of operation could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, our financial performance generally, and in particular the ability of borrowers to pay interest and repay principal of outstanding loans, the value of collateral securing those loans, and the demand for loans and other products and services that we offer, is highly dependent upon the business environment in the primary markets in which we operate and in the United States as a whole. Unfavorable market conditions and uncertainty due to the coronavirus pandemic may result in a deterioration in the credit quality of borrowers, an increase in the number of loan delinquencies, defaults, and charge-offs, additional provisions for loan losses, adverse asset values of the collateral securing loans, and an overall material adverse effect on the quality of our loan portfolio. Moreover, the duration of the coronavirus pandemic and its corresponding impact on unfavorable and uncertain economic conditions is unknown and highly uncertain.
Weather-related events or other natural disasters may have an effect on the performance of our loan portfolios, especially in our coastal markets, thereby adversely affecting our results of operations.
Our operations and customer base are located in markets where natural disasters, including tornadoes, severe storms, fires, floods, hurricanes and earthquakes have occurred. Such natural disasters could significantly affect the local population and economies and our business, and could pose physical risks to our properties. Although our banking offices are geographically dispersed throughout portions of the southeastern United States and we maintain insurance coverage for such events, a significant natural disaster in or near one or more of our markets could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
Our acquisitions and future expansion may result in additional risks.
We expect to continue to expand in our current markets and in select attractive new growth markets by opening additional branches and service locations and also through acquisitions of all or part of other financial institutions. These types of expansions involve various risks, including:
Planning and Execution of Expansion. We may be unable to successfully:
•identify and expand into suitable markets;
•identify and acquire suitable sites for new branches and service locations and comply with zoning and permitting requirements;
•identify and execute potential acquisition targets;
•develop accurate estimates and judgments to evaluate asset values and credit, operations, management and market risks with respect to an acquired branch or institution, a new branch office or a new market;
•realize certain assumptions and estimates to preserve the expected financial benefits of the transaction;
•avoid the diversion of our management’s attention from existing operations during the negotiation of a transaction;
•manage successful entry into new markets where we have limited or no direct prior experience;
•obtain regulatory and other approvals, or obtain such approvals without restrictive conditions;
•avoid the incurrence and possible impairment of goodwill associated with an acquisition and possible adverse effects on results of operations; or
•finance an acquisition or expansion or avoid possible dilution of our tangible book value.
Management of Growth. We may be unable to successfully:
•maintain loan quality in the context of significant loan growth;
•attract sufficient deposits and capital to fund anticipated loan growth;
•maintain adequate common equity and regulatory capital;
•avoid diversion or disruption of our existing operations or management as well as those of the acquired institution;
•hire or retain adequate management personnel and systems to oversee and support such growth;
•avoid the loss of key employees and customers of an acquired branch or institution;
•maintain adequate internal audit, loan review and compliance functions;
•implement additional policies, procedures and operating systems required to support such growth;
•integrate the acquired financial institution or portion of the institution; or
•avoid temporary disruption of our business or the business of the acquired institution.
Regulatory and Economic Factors. Our growth and expansion plans also may be adversely affected by a number of regulatory and economic developments or other events. Failure to obtain required regulatory approvals, changes in laws and regulations or other regulatory developments and changes in prevailing economic conditions or other unanticipated events may prevent or adversely affect our continued growth and expansion. Such factors may cause us to alter our growth and expansion plans or slow or halt the growth and expansion process, which may prevent us from entering into or expanding in our targeted markets or allow competitors to gain or retain market share in our existing markets.
Failure to successfully address these and other issues related to our expansion could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations, and could adversely affect our ability to successfully implement our business strategy. Also, if our growth occurs more slowly than anticipated or declines, our results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
SPECIFIC RISKS RELATED TO OWNERSHIP OF OUR COMMON STOCK
United’s corporate organizational documents and the provisions of Georgia law to which we are subject contain certain provisions that could have an anti-takeover effect and may delay, make more difficult or prevent an attempted acquisition of United that you may favor.
United’s amended and restated articles of incorporation, as amended (our “articles”), and bylaws, as amended (our “bylaws”), contain various provisions that could have an anti-takeover effect and may delay, discourage or prevent an attempted acquisition or change of control of United. These provisions include:
•a provision allowing the Board to consider the interests of our employees, customers, suppliers and creditors when considering an acquisition proposal;
•a provision that all amendments to the articles and bylaws must be approved by a majority of the outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote;
•a provision requiring that any business combination involving United be approved by 75% of the outstanding shares of United’s common stock excluding shares held by stockholders who are deemed to have an interest in the transaction unless the business combination is approved by 75% of United’s directors;
•a provision restricting removal of directors except for cause and upon the approval of two-thirds of the outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote;
•a provision that any special meeting of shareholders may be called only by the chairman, chief executive officer, president, chief financial officer, board of directors or the holders of 25% of the outstanding shares of United’s capital stock entitled to vote; and
•a provision establishing certain advance notice procedures for matters to be considered at an annual meeting of shareholders.
Additionally, United’s articles authorize the Board to issue shares of preferred stock without shareholder approval and upon such terms as the Board may determine. The issuance of our preferred stock, while providing desirable flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions, financings and other corporate purposes, could have the effect of making it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or of discouraging a third party from acquiring, a controlling interest in us. In addition, certain provisions of Georgia law, including a provision which restricts certain business combinations between a Georgia corporation and certain affiliated shareholders, may delay, discourage or prevent an attempted acquisition or change in control of United.
Holders of our indebtedness and preferred stock have rights that are senior to those of our common shareholders.
At December 31, 2020, we had outstanding senior debentures, subordinated debentures, trust preferred securities and accompanying subordinated debentures and preferred stock totaling $423 million. Payments of the principal and interest on the senior debentures, subordinated debentures and the subordinated debentures accompanying the trust preferred securities and dividends on the preferred stock are senior to payments with respect to shares of our common stock. We also conditionally guarantee payments of the principal and interest on the trust preferred securities. As a result, we must make payments on these debt instruments (including the related trust preferred securities) and preferred shares before any dividends can be paid on our common stock and, in the event of bankruptcy, dissolution or liquidation, the holders of the debt and preferred shares must be satisfied before any distributions can be made on our common stock. We have the right to defer distributions on the subordinated debentures related to the trust preferred securities (and the related guarantee of payments on the trust preferred securities) for up to five years, during which time no dividends may be paid on our common stock. If our financial condition deteriorates or if we do not receive required regulatory approvals, we may be required to defer distributions on the subordinated debentures related to the trust preferred securities (and the related guarantee of payments on the trust preferred securities).
We may from time to time issue additional senior or subordinated indebtedness or preferred stock that would have to be repaid before our shareholders would be entitled to receive any of our assets.
An investment in our common stock is not an insured deposit and is not guaranteed by the FDIC.
Our common stock is not a bank deposit and, therefore, is not insured against loss by the FDIC, any other deposit insurance fund or by any other public or private entity. Investment in our common stock is inherently risky for the reasons described herein and our shareholders will bear the risk of loss if the value or market price of our common stock is adversely affected.
GENERAL RISK FACTORS
If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results. As a result, current and potential holders of our securities could lose confidence in our financial reporting, which would harm our business and the trading price of our securities.
Maintaining and adapting our internal controls over financial reporting, as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, is expensive and requires significant management attention. Moreover, as we continue to grow, our internal controls may become more complex and require additional resources to ensure they remain effective amid dynamic regulatory and other guidance. Failure to implement effective controls or difficulties encountered in the process may harm our results of operations and financial condition or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. If we or our independent registered accounting firm identify material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting or are otherwise required to restate our financial statements, we could be required to implement expensive and time-consuming remedial measures and could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports. We may also face regulatory enforcement or other actions, including the potential delisting of our securities from the Nasdaq. This could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations, as well as the trading price of our securities, and could potentially subject us to litigation.
Our reported financial results incorporate significant assumptions, estimates and judgments. In addition, changes in accounting standards or interpretations could impact our reported earnings and financial condition.
Management must make significant assumptions and estimates and exercise significant judgment in selecting and applying accounting and reporting policies. In some cases, management must select a policy from two or more alternatives, any of which may be reasonable under the circumstances, which may result in reporting materially different results than would have been reported under a different alternative.
Certain accounting policies are critical to presenting our financial condition and results. They require management to make difficult, subjective and complex assumptions, estimates and judgments about matters that are uncertain. Materially different amounts could be reported under different conditions or using different assumptions and estimates. These critical accounting policies relate to the ACL and fair value measurement. Because of the uncertainty of assumptions and estimates involved in these matters, we may be required to do one or more of the following: significantly increase the ACL and/or sustain credit losses that are significantly higher than the reserve provided; or, significantly decrease the carrying value of loans, foreclosed property or other assets or liabilities to reflect a reduction in their fair value.
The accounting standard setters, including the FASB, the SEC and other regulatory agencies, periodically change the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of our consolidated financial statements. For additional information, refer to Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements contained in this Report. These changes can be hard to predict and can materially impact how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. In some cases, we could be required to apply a new or revised standard retroactively, which would result in the recasting of our prior period financial statements.
We could be subject to changes in tax laws, regulations and interpretations or challenges to our income tax provision.
We compute our income tax provision based on enacted tax rates in the jurisdictions in which we operate. Any change in enacted tax laws, rules or regulatory or judicial interpretations, any adverse outcome in connection with tax audits in any jurisdiction or any change in the pronouncements relating to accounting for income taxes could adversely affect our effective tax rate, tax payments and results of operations.
Negative publicity could damage our reputation and our business.
Reputation risk, or the risk to our earnings, liquidity and capital from negative public opinion, is inherent in our business. Negative public opinion could adversely affect our ability to keep and attract customers and expose us to adverse legal and regulatory consequences. Negative public opinion could result from our actual or alleged conduct in any number of activities, including lending
practices, corporate governance, regulatory compliance, securities compliance, mergers and acquisitions, and disclosure, from sharing or inadequate protection of customer information and from actions taken by government regulators and community organizations in response to that conduct. Negative public opinion could also result from adverse news or publicity that impairs the reputation of the financial services industry generally. Because we conduct most of our business under the “United” brand, negative public opinion about one business could affect our other businesses.
Although our common stock currently is traded on the Nasdaq, it has less liquidity than other stocks quoted on a national securities exchange.
Although our common stock is listed for trading on Nasdaq, the trading volume in our common stock is less than that of other, larger financial services companies. A public trading market having the desired characteristics of depth, liquidity and orderliness depends on the presence in the marketplace of willing buyers and sellers of our common stock at any given time. This presence depends on the individual decisions of investors and general economic and market conditions over which we have no control. Given the lower trading volume of our common stock, significant sales of our common stock, or the expectation of these sales, could cause our stock price to fall.
The trading volume in our common stock on Nasdaq has been relatively low when compared with larger companies listed on the Nasdaq or other stock exchanges. For 2020, our average daily trading volume was 515,640 shares. Although we have experienced increased liquidity in our stock, we cannot say with any certainty that a more active and liquid trading market for our common stock will continue to develop. Because of this, it may be more difficult for shareholders to sell a substantial number of shares for the same price at which shareholders could sell a smaller number of shares.
We cannot predict the effect, if any, that future sales of our common stock in the market, or the availability of shares of common stock for sale in the market, will have on the market price of our common stock. We can give no assurance that sales of substantial amounts of common stock in the market, or the potential for large amounts of sales in the market, would not cause the price of our common stock to decline or impair our future ability to raise capital through sales of our common stock.
Our stock price can be volatile.
Stock price volatility may make it more difficult for you to resell your common stock when you want and at prices you find attractive. Our stock price can fluctuate significantly in response to a variety of factors, some of which are unrelated to our financial performance, including, among other things:
•actual or anticipated variations in quarterly results of operations;
•recommendations by securities analysts;
•operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to us;
•news reports relating to trends, concerns and other issues in the financial services industry;
•perceptions in the marketplace regarding us and/or our competitors;
•new technology used, or services offered, by competitors;
•significant acquisitions or business combinations, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments by or involving us or our competitors;
•failure to integrate acquisitions or realize anticipated benefits from acquisitions;
•changes in government regulations; or
•geopolitical conditions such as acts or threats of terrorism, military conflicts, the effects (or perceived effects) of pandemics and trade relations.
General market fluctuations, including real or anticipated changes in the strength of the local economy; industry factors and general economic and political conditions and events, such as economic slowdowns or recessions; interest rate changes, oil price volatility or credit loss trends could also cause our stock price to decrease regardless of our operating results.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES.
Our executive offices are located at 125 Highway 515 East, Blairsville, Georgia and 2 West Washington Street, Suite 700, Greenville, South Carolina. We own our executive office in Blairsville, Georgia and lease our executive office in Greenville, South Carolina. We provide services or perform operational functions at 193 locations, of which 137 are owned and 56 are leased under operating leases. We believe the terms of the various leases are consistent with market standards and were arrived at through arm’s-length bargaining. We consider our properties to be suitable and adequate for operating our banking business. Notes 7 and 13 to our consolidated financial statements include additional information regarding investments in premises and equipment and leased properties.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.
In the ordinary course of operations, we are parties to various legal proceedings and periodic regulatory examinations and investigations. There are no material pending legal proceedings to which we or any of our properties are subject.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES.
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR UNITED’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.
Stock. United’s common stock trades on the Nasdaq under the symbol “UCBI”. At January 31, 2021, there were 8,142 record shareholders of United’s common stock.
Dividends. Our Board declared annual cash dividends of $0.72 and $0.68 per share on our common stock in 2020 and 2019, respectively. We currently intend to continue to pay comparable quarterly cash dividends on our common stock, subject to approval by our Board, although we may elect not to pay dividends or to change the amount of such dividends. The payment of dividends is a decision of our Board based upon then-existing circumstances, including our rate of growth, profitability, financial condition, existing and anticipated capital requirements, the amount of funds legally available for the payment of cash dividends, regulatory constraints and such other factors as the Board determines relevant.
Additional information regarding dividends is included in this Report in Note 21 to our consolidated financial statements in Part II Item 8 Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, under the heading of “Supervision and Regulation” in Part I Item 1. Business and under the heading “Capital Resources and Dividends” in Part II, Item 7. MD&A.
Share Repurchases. We made no common stock repurchases during the fourth quarter of 2020. In November 2020, our Board re-authorized the existing common stock repurchase plan to allow the repurchase of up to $50 million of our common stock. The program is scheduled to expire on the earlier of the repurchase of our common stock having an aggregate purchase price of $50 million or December 31, 2021. Under the program, shares may be repurchased in open market transactions at prevailing market prices or in privately negotiated transactions, from time to time, or by other means in accordance with federal securities laws, and the program may be suspended or discontinued at any time without notice. The actual timing, number and value of shares repurchased under the program will be determined by management at its discretion and will depend on a number of factors, including the market price of our stock, general market and economic conditions, and applicable legal requirements. Repurchased shares will become treasury shares and may be utilized for general corporate purposes.
Performance Graph. Set forth below is a line graph comparing the yearly percentage change in the cumulative total shareholder return on our common stock against the cumulative total return on the Nasdaq Stock Market (U.S. Companies) Index and the Nasdaq Bank Stocks Index for the five-year period commencing December 31, 2015 and ending on December 31, 2020.
| ||Cumulative Total Return*|
|United Community Banks, Inc.||$||100 ||$||154 ||$||148 ||$||116 ||$||170 ||$||163 |
|Nasdaq Stock Market (U.S.) Index||100 ||108 ||138 ||133 ||179 ||257 |
|Nasdaq Bank Index||100 ||135 ||140 ||115 ||139 ||124 |
* Assumes $100 invested on December 31, 2015 in our common stock and above noted indexes. Total return includes reinvestment of dividends at the closing stock price of the common stock on the dividend payment date and the closing values of stock and indexes as of December 31 of each year.
UNITED COMMUNITY BANKS, INC.
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
For the Years Ended December 31,
|(in thousands, except per share data)||2020||2019||2018||2017||2016|
|Interest revenue||$||557,996 ||$||552,706 ||$||500,080 ||$||389,720 ||$||335,020 |
|Interest expense||56,237 ||83,312 ||61,330 ||33,735 ||25,236 |
|Net interest revenue||501,759 ||469,394 ||438,750 ||355,985 ||309,784 |
|Provision for credit losses|